High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

2-Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), a non-competitive mGluR5 antagonist, differentially affects the anticonvulsant activity of four conventional antiepileptic drugs against amygdala-kindled seizures in rats.


The binding of [3H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)-tetralin ([ 3H]8-OH-DPAT) to rat hippocampal and striatal membranes has been compared. In the hippocampus, low concentrations of [3H]8-OH-DPAT bound to a single, high affinity site which was sensitive to inhibition by spiperone, buspirone and ergotamine but not by mianserin, quipazine or (-)-propranolol. This is consistent with a selective labeling of the 5-HT1A receptor. In the striatum, [3H]8-OH-DPAT bound to two sites with high and low affinity (KD's 1.18 and 109 nM). The high affinity component was blocked by low concentrations of buspirone, spiperone and ergotamine. The low affinity component was blocked only by high concentrations of buspirone and spiperone, and was not displaced by ergotamine at concentrations up to 1 microM. The ergotamine-resistant component of striatal [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding was blocked by low concentrations of the 5-HT uptake inhibitors fluvoxamine and paroxetine, and by relatively low concentrations of 5-HT itself. Thus [3H]8-OH-DPAT labels the 5-HT transporter in the rat striatum. Unlike [3H]imipramine binding, the binding of [3H]8-OH-DPAT to the 5-HT transporter was independent of external sodium ions. It is therefore suggested that 8-OH-DPAT acts as substrate for the 5-HT transporter and labels the 5-HT recognition site of the transporter complex.

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often suffer from visuospatial deficits, which have been considered a disruption of the representation of external space. The lateralised choice reaction time (CRT) task is an operant task for rodents in which similar deficits can be assessed. It has been demonstrated that specific parameters in this task is disrupted after unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have been associated with the dopamine (DA) depletion that inevitably follows this type of lesion. However, studies have demonstrated that this type of lesion also affects the serotonergic (5HT) and noradrenergic (NA) systems. However, the impact of these systems on parameters in the CRT task had not yet been investigated. To this end, rats were pretrained on the CRT task before receiving selective lesions of the DAergic system, either alone or in combination with depletion of the NA or 5HT system. All rats with a 6-OHDA lesion displayed a gradual decline in the selection, initiation and execution of lateralised movements compared to sham-lesion controls on the side contralateral to the lesion. They also displayed a reduced number of useable trials as well as an increased number of procedural errors. Interestingly, the group with an additional noradrenergic lesion was significantly slower in reacting to lateralised stimuli throughout the testing period compared to the other two groups with a 6-OHDA lesion. There was however no difference between the three different lesion groups in the other parameters assessed in the task. These data confirm previous findings demonstrating that the majority of the parameters assessed in the lateralised CRT task are strongly dependent on DA. However, this study has also shown that the NAergic system may play an important role in contributing to the attentive performance influencing the capacity to react to the presented lateralised stimuli.

The study shows that the relative dose to a suckling infant is close to that reported for fluoxetine, and higher than reported for fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline.

Our findings suggest that alterations in mean heart rate and blood pressure in depressed patients after antidepressant treatment are the result of a combined effect of pharmacological actions of antidepressants and improvement of depressive mood state. The present study did not confirm the relationship between clinical state and cardiovascular variability or baroreflex sensitivity.

Guinea pigs possess central 5-HT1D receptors similar to humans but different from rats and mice. In order to study the role of this receptor on animal behaviour, it may be of interest to develop a paradigm measuring affective states in the guinea pig. Therefore we assessed the effects of a variety of psychotropic drugs on guinea pig pup isolation calls. Anxiolytic compounds such as the benzodiazepine receptor agonists diazepam and alprazolam, the full 5-HT1A receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan, and alcohol reduced isolation calling by the guinea pig pup. Moreover, mixed antidepressant/anxiolytic compounds like the 5-HT uptake inhibitors fluvoxamine and clomipramine or the MAO-inhibitor clorgyline as well as the antidepressant NA uptake inhibitors desipramine and maprotiline suppressed vocalizations. The 5-HT1D/1A receptor agonist 5-CT was also very effective in reducing separation calls. Remarkably, the partial 5-HT1A receptor agonists buspirone and BMY 7378 did not affect calling. The neuroleptic haloperidol, the psychostimulant d-amphetamine, the putative anxiogenics DMCM and m-CPP and the putative anxiolytics ondansetron and CI-988 had no effect on isolation calls of guinea pig pups. We propose this paradigm could be helpful to assess behavioural effects of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs in a species different from rat or mouse, and in which the effects of 5-HT1D receptor ligands may possibly be established.