High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

A comparative assessment of solubility advantage from glassy and crystalline forms of a water-insoluble drug.


The platelet aggregation rates (MAR) after AMI were 46.8% and 45.7% respectively in tirofiban group and A-C Combination group, and significantly decreased to 12.9% and 14.3% respectively after the administration of drugs (both P < 0.01) with equivalent potency (P > 0.05). The left ventricular function was significantly improved in tirofiban group in comparison with control group (P < 0.05 - 0.01), the coronary blood flow volume (CBV) 1 h after reperfusion was 73.2% in tirofiban group, significantly higher than that of control group (45.8%, P < 0.01), and the ANR of tirofiban group was 22.8% and 23.2% judged by MCE and pathological examination respectively, both significantly smaller than those of control group (78.5% and 82.3%, both P < 0.01), and the NA of tirofiban group was 89.2%, significantly smaller than that of Control Group (98.5%, P < 0.05). However, there were not significant differences in left ventricular function, central blood volume, ANR and NA between A-C combination group and control group (all P > 0.05).

These results show the utility of a simple perfusion chamber technology to assess in real time the activity of antiplatelet drugs and their combinations. It offers the opportunity to perform pharmacodynamic monitoring of arterial thrombosis in clinical trials and to investigate novel strategies directed at inhibiting thrombus stability in the management of cardiovascular disease.

Pharmacological management of thrombotic complications is strongly influenced by antiplatelet treatment strategies. Recent clinical trials have clearly indicated that current antiplatelet strategies may not inhibit recurrent thrombotic events in selected patients and improvement is necessary. Recently, there has been a gradual modification in the guidelines for clopidogrel dosing. In addition, newly developed P2Y(12) receptor inhibitors and thrombin inhibitors are undergoing Phase II and III clinical trials. Moreover, research related to novel agents that interfere with other steps in coagulation and platelet adhesion, and platelet thromboxane and thrombin receptor blockers, show promise. An important future step will probably be the development of personalized therapy based on defining the individual patient's propensity for thrombosis through investigation of platelet-thrombin-fibrin interactions. Such an approach will enhance the targeting of specific therapy based on the pathophysiology of the individual patient.

Despite benefits of clopidogrel in patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, this agent is often not administered upstream (before angiography) as recommended by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines because of potential bleeding in the minority of patients who require CABG.

Patients ≥50years with prior MI 1-3years ago and ≥1 risk factor (age ≥65years, diabetes, 2nd prior MI >1yr ago, multivessel CAD, creatinine clearance 15-<60ml/min) were enrolled by 369 physicians (96% cardiologists) in 25 countries (2013-14) in the prospective TIGRIS study (NCT01866904).

To describe specific causes of death and evaluate whether bleeding events and infection contributed to mortality in all ticagrelor-treated and clopidogrel-treated patients with acute coronary syndromes.

This review describes prasugrel chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical studies. In a Phase III randomized clopidogrel-controlled trial, prasugrel improved cardiovascular outcome (risk reduction of cardiovascular death, non-fatal heart attack and non-fatal stroke) at the cost of increased major and fatal bleeding complications. Prasugrel, in combination with aspirin, has been approved by European and American regulatory agencies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with ACS who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Most retinal or subretinal hemorrhages in eyes enrolled in CATT were less than 1 DA. Among all CATT participants, antiplatelet or anticoagulant use was not associated significantly with hemorrhage, but it was associated significantly with hemorrhage in participants with hypertension.

A cohort of 1,281 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for an ACS was studied. They were divided according to their treatment prior to the ACS. The CCT group was composed of all patients who had been taking clopidogrel for >or=30 days before the onset of the ACS (n = 175) and the no CCT group of all patients not on clopidogrel before the ACS (n = 1,106). Rates of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction at 6 months' follow-up were compared.

Cerebral infarction is a major cause of death or decreasing activities of daily living. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of commonly used antiplatelet drugs on stroke and motor and cognitive functions in relation to oxidative stress markers and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R).

Between January 2008 and November 2014, 24 patients, 16 male, median age 62 years, underwent surgical treatment of AAAD. The surgical technique consisted of intussusception of a Dacron tube in the dissected aorta, which is anastomosed with a first line of 2-0 polyester everting mattress suture and a second line of 3-0 polypropylene running suture placed at the outermost side. Open distal anastomosis was performed with bilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion in 13 (54.1%) patients.