High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

A comparison of abdominal and scrotal approach methods of vasectomy and the influence of analgesic treatment in laboratory mice.


Randomized controlled trials of 5-ASA compared with placebo or sulfasalazine of a minimum of 4 weeks duration for active disease and a minimum of 6 months for maintenance of disease remission. Sixteen trials of 5-ASA for active disease, published either in abstract or full manuscript, were available. Eleven trials of 5-ASA for maintenance of remission were also reviewed.

A 39-yr-old white male with a prolonged history of Crohn's disease presented with worsening diarrhea associated with an increasingly painful rash of both lower extremities as well as left ankle swelling. A skin biopsy revealed an acute leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Intravenous hydrocortisone followed by oral prednisone achieved a rapid remission of the both cutaneous and gastrointestinal manifestations. Long-term remission has been maintained with 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine. The rare association between cutaneous vasculitis and Crohn's disease is discussed and earlier reported cases reviewed.

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different processing methods on the profiles of 5-aminosalicylic acid dissolution from controlled-release matrix systems based on Eudragit® RL and Eudragit® RS water-insoluble polymers. The pure polymers and their mixtures were studied as matrix formers using different processing methods, i.e., direct compression, wet granulation of the active ingredient with the addition of polymer(s) to the external phase, wet granulation with water, and wet granulation with aqueous dispersions. In comparison with the directly compressed tablets, tablets made by wet granulation with water demonstrated a 6-19% increase in final drug dissolution, whereas when polymers were applied in the external phase during compression, a 0-13% decrease was observed in the amount of drug released. Wet granulation with aqueous polymer dispersions delayed the release of the drug; this was especially marked (a 54-56% decrease in drug release) in compositions, which contained a high amount of Eudragit RL 30D. The release profiles were mostly described by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model or the Hopfenberg model.

A retrospective cohort study identified all children and adults treated for IBD with AZA/6-MP at 2 tertiary medical centers. Patients were included if their TPMT genotype was known and 6-TGn and 6-methymercaptopurine (6-MMP) levels had been obtained after 3 months of clinical remission at a stable dose of AZA/6-MP. 6-TGn and 6-MMP levels were compared between patients taking and those not taking 5-ASA medications through the use of linear regression models to identify and adjust for potentially confounding variables.

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder consisting of a triad of albinism, increased bleeding tendency secondary to platelet dysfunction, and systemic complications associated with ceroid depositions within the reticuloendothelial system. HPS has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) complications related to chronic granulomatous colitis with pathologic features suggestive of Crohn's disease. This colitis can be severe and has been reported to be poorly responsive to medical therapies including antibiotics, corticosteroids, sulfasalazine, mesalamine and azathioprine.

Budesonide multimatrix was safe and efficacious for inducing clinical and endoscopic remission for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis refractory to oral mesalamine therapy [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01532648].

The mucosal concentration of mesalazine in the juxta-anastomatic area is significantly lower in patients with recurrence than in those free of recurrence. These data could suggest an association between mucosal mesalazine concentrations and the clinical effectiveness of the drug.

Our primary outcome was remission, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index score <150. A Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis was performed on the proportion in remission.

After intracolonic instillation of TNBS, animals developed colitis associated with soft stool, diarrhea and marked colonic destruction. Administration of HM significantly attenuated clinical and histopathologic severity of TNBS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner. It abrogated body weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation, decreased macroscopic damage score, and improved histological signs, with a significant reduction of inflammatory infiltration, ulcer size and the severity of goblet cell depletion (all P < 0.05 vs TNBS alone group). HM could reduce MPO activity. In addition, it also decreased serum TNF-α level and down-regulated TNF-α expression in colonic tissue. This reduction was statistically significant when the dose of HM was 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05 vs TNBS alone group), and the effect was comparable to that of mesalazine and showed no apparent adverse effect. The underlying mechanism may be associated with TNF-α inhibition.

Remission was obtained in 44% (95% confidence interval (CI) 31%, 58%) of the mesalazine enema group (Me) and in 34% (95% CI 21%, 49%) of the placebo enema group (Pl) at four weeks (p = 0.31) and in 64% (95% CI 50%, 76%) of the Me group versus 43% (95% CI 28%, 58%) of the Pl group at eight weeks (p = 0.03). Improvement was obtained in 89% (95% CI 78%, 96%) of the Me group versus 62% (95% CI 46%, 75%) of the Pl group at four weeks (p = 0.0008) and in 86% (95% CI 75%, 94%) of the Me group versus 68% (95% CI 53%, 81%) of the Pl group at eight weeks (p = 0.026).