High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

A systematic review of treatment of typical absence seizures in children and adolescents with ethosuximide, sodium valproate or lamotrigine.


The PBPK model provides an accurate description of the individual variation of the plasma ramipril and ramiprilat and the ramiprilat renal clearance following IV ramiprilat and IV and oral ramipril. Summary of model features: Less than 2% of total body ACE is in plasma; 35% of the oral dose is absorbed; 75% of the ramipril metabolism is hepatic and 25% of this is converted to systemic ramiprilat; 100% of renal ramipril metabolism is converted to systemic ramiprilat. The inhibition was long lasting, with 80% of the C site and 33% of the N site inhibited 24 hours following a 2.5 mg oral ramipril dose. The plasma ACE inhibition determined by the standard assay is significantly less than the true in vivo inhibition because of assay dilution.

Experimental diabetes was associated with cell specific two to fourfold increase in retinal VEGF protein gene expression (p < 0.01) and a 2-fold increase in retinal vascular permeability to albumin (p < 0.01). The localization of VEGF expression in the retina was not altered in animals with experimental diabetes. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment of diabetic rats reduced diabetes-associated changes in VEGF gene expression and vascular permeability.

Vasopeptidase inhibitors by definition inhibit both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP), therefore they may exceed the effect of ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension. The present study investigated the effect of the vasopeptidase inhibitor AVE7688 in comparison to the ACE inhibitor ramipril on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and endothelial function in renovascular hypertension.

Hypertension links to a prothrombotic state driven by endothelial dysfunction, reduced fibrinolytic potential and platelet hyperactivity. We hypothesized that ramipril treatment would favourably modify the haemostatic response to a submaximal aerobic exercise session in hypertensives.

Experiment 1: Six weeks after SAD of rats, components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in left ventricles were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Experiment 2: Rats were divided into five groups treated as follows: (1) sham-operated group; (2) SAD group; (3) SAD group treated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist losartan (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), orally); (4) SAD group treated by ACE inhibitor ramipril (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), orally); (5) SAD group treated by ramipril and the B2-kinin receptor selective antagonist HOE-140 (0.25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), subcutaneously).

AngII-induced upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1 protein and RNA in monocytes was inhibited by the AT1R-blocker losartan, but not by the AT2R-blocker PD 123.319. Ramiprilat dose-dependently suppressed AngII-induced upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1. The suppressive effect of ramiprilat on AngII-induced chemokine production and release was in part caused by downregulation of NF-kappaB, but more by a selective and highly significant reduced expression of AT1 receptors as shown in monocytes and endothelial cells.

A cautious uptitration of loop diuretic dosage in addition to combined half doses of ACEI and ARB better decrease proteinuria in patients with CKD and high residual proteinuria than uptitration to full dose of combined ACEI and ARB. This antiproteinuric effect of diuretics was partly explained by an eGFR decrease, suggesting the contribution of haemodynamic modifications, whose safety on the long term still need to be addressed.

People with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomised to ramipril (15 mg/day) or placebo and rosiglitazone (8 mg/day) or placebo with a 2x2 factorial design. They are assessed semi-annually for the primary outcome (diabetes or death). Diabetes is diagnosed if two consecutive plasma glucose levels exceed diagnostic thresholds (i.e. fasting >/=7.0 mmol/l or 2-h >/=11.1 mmol/l) within a 3-month period. Assuming an annual primary outcome incidence of 5%, there is more than 90% power to detect a 22% reduction. Approximately 20% of participants are having annual carotid ultrasounds to assess the effects on atherosclerosis. Patients screened but not randomised are being followed prospectively to identify determinants of obesity, diabetes and related disorders.

A total of 112 hemodialysis (HD) patients were included in this study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive ramipril or amlodipine for 1 year. Blood pressure (BP) measurements, LVMI, and CIMT were assessed at baseline and 6-month intervals. Biochemical parameters and inflammatory markers were also determined at the initiation and during the study period.

This study compares the effect of estrogens and ACE inhibition on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women, genotyped for a 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter, a polymorphism shown to influence PAI-1 concentrations. Methods and Results- Morning estradiol, PAI-1, tissue plasminogen activator, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured in 19 postmenopausal women (5G/5G:4G/5G:4G4G=5:10:4, respectively) at baseline and during randomized, single-blind, crossover treatment with conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg per os per day, ramipril 10 mg per os per day, and combination estrogens and ramipril. Estradiol (P<0.005) and angiotensin II (P<0.01) were significantly higher during estrogens. Plasma renin activity was significantly increased during ACE inhibition (P<0.05). Both conjugated estrogens [PAI-1 antigen from 12.5 (7.6, 17.4) [mean (95% CI)] baseline to 6.6 (2.6, 10.7) ng/mL, P<0.01] and ACE inhibition [8.3 (4.9, 11.7) ng/mL, P<0.005] decreased PAI-1 without decreasing tissue plasminogen activator. The effect of combined therapy on PAI-1 [5.6 (2.3, 8.8) ng/mL] was significantly greater than that of ramipril alone (P<0.05). There was a significant effect of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype on baseline PAI-1 concentrations (P=0.001) and a significant interactive effect of 4G/5G genotype and treatment, such that genotype influenced the change in PAI-1 during ramipril (P=0.011) or combined therapy (P=0.006) but not during estrogens (P=0.715).