High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists: a comparative study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.


In humans, fibrates are frequently used normolipidemic drugs. Fibrates act by regulating genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in liver. In rodents, however, fibrates induce a peroxisome proliferation, leading to hepatomegaly and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis. Although this peroxisome proliferative response appears not to occur in humans, it remains controversial whether the beneficial effects of fibrates on lipoprotein metabolism can occur dissociated from such undesirable peroxisomal response. Here, we assessed the influence of fenofibrate on lipoprotein metabolism and peroxisome proliferation in the rabbit, an animal that, contrary to rodents and similar to humans, is less sensitive to peroxisome proliferators.

To develop solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for lipids using poloxamer 188 as both solidifying and emulsifying agents.

Male STR/Ort mice received control diet or control diet containing two different dosages of simvastatin or fenofibrate or a combination of both. Mice were euthanized after 16 weeks of treatment at the age of 24 weeks. Serum analysis for metabolic and inflammatory markers, histologic OA grading and micro computed tomography (μCT) analysis of subchondral bone plate were performed.

Niacin may reduce cardiovascular events as monotherapy; however, recent trials in combination with statins have failed to show a benefit. Trials with omega-3 FAs have failed to demonstrate significant reductions in cardiovascular outcomes. Fibrates may improve cardiovascular outcomes as monotherapy; however, trials in combination with statins have failed to show a benefit, except in those with elevated triglycerides (>200 mg/dL) or low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL). There is a lack of data that evaluates bile acid sequestrant in combination with statin therapy on reducing cardiovascular events. Ezetimibe-statin combination therapy can reduce cardiovascular outcomes in those with chronic kidney disease and following vascular surgery or acute coronary syndrome. Long-term effects of emerging nonstatin therapies (CETP and PCSK9 inhibitors) are currently being evaluated in ongoing Phase III trials.

Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) have become a popular formulation option as nanocarriers for poorly water-soluble drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor that can influence the design of successful lipid formulation classification system (LFCS) Type III SNEDDS formulation and improve the oral bioavailability (BA) of fenofibrate.

Particle size distribution in both HDL and LDL is reflected in the fractional esterification rate of cholesterol by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma depleted of apoB containing lipoproteins (FER(HDL)). We studied FER(HDL) in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and determined the impact of two different PPAR agonists (fenofibrate and rosiglitazone) on this marker of lipoprotein particle quality.

Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in mice. In the present study, the effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice without and with the influence of fenofibrate were investigated. Parameters on hepatic index (the ratio of liver weight to body weight × 100) were also analyzed. Mice were intragastrically treated with schisandrin B at a single dose of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 g/kg, without or with fenofibrate pretreatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 4 days, p.o.). Twenty-four hours after schisandrin B treatment, serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were measured. Schisandrin B treatment dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels as well as hepatic index in mice. In contrast, hepatic total cholesterol levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in schisandrin B-treated mice. Data obtained from effective kinetics analysis indicated that the action of schisandrin B on serum triglyceride had a higher specificity than those on hepatic total cholesterol and hepatic index. While fenofibrate pretreatment inhibited the schisandrin B-induced elevation in serum triglyceride levels, it completely abrogated the elevation of hepatic triglyceride levels in schisandrin B-treated mice. The combined treatment with schisandrin B and fenofibrate decreased hepatic total cholesterol level and increased the hepatic index in an additive or semi-additive manner, respectively. In conclusion, the results of effective kinetics analysis indicated that the schisandrin B-induced hypertriglyceridemia was competitively inhibited by fenofibrate. Schisandrin B may offer the prospect of setting up a mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver for screening triglyceride-lowering drug candidates.

The addition of fenofibrate in 2 patients on stable and therapeutic doses of warfarin increased the anticoagulant response to warfarin. A clear temporal relationship with the addition of fenofibrate and the appearance of the interaction was seen. Fenofibrate is highly protein bound, with the potential to displace warfarin from its binding protein, leading to an enhanced hypoprothrombinemic effect. Fenofibrate is also a mild to moderate inhibitor of CYP2C9, the enzyme responsible for warfarin metabolism. The combination of these effects--displacement of warfarin by fenofibrate coupled with decreased metabolism of warfarin--may increase the anticoagulant response to warfarin. Using the Naranjo probability scale, these interactions were designated as probable.