High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy in Chinese patients with asthma.


Primary outcome (all cause mortality) and secondary outcomes (including admission to hospital) were meta-analysed with random effects modelling.

Nalfurafine hydrochloride (TRK-820), which exhibits strong κ-opioid agonistic activity, has an antipruritic effect on uremic pruritus. The permeability of nalfurafine across human P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-expressing LLC-PK1 cells was investigated to evaluate drug-drug interactions (DDI) involving the P-gp efflux transporter of nalfurafine. Furthermore, we assessed the ratio of brain/plasma concentrations (K p) as an indicator to investigate the changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport through P-gp when digoxin or verapamil was concomitantly administered with nalfurafine in mice.

The disposition of digoxin and the influence of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp)2 inhibitor rifampicin and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor quinidine on its hepatic disposition were examined in the isolated perfused rat liver. Livers from groups of rats were perfused in a recirculatory manner after a bolus dose of digoxin (10 microg), a dual substrate for Oatp2 and P-gp as well as CYP3A. Perfusions of digoxin were also examined in groups of rats in the presence of the inhibitors: rifampicin (100 microM) or quinidine (10 microM). In all experiments, perfusate samples were collected for 60 min. Digoxin and its primary metabolite were determined in perfusate and liver by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The area under the curve (AUC) from 0 to 60 min was determined. The AUC +/- S.D. of digoxin was increased from control (3880 +/- 210 nM x min) by rifampicin (5200 +/- 240 nM x min; p < 0.01) and decreased by quinidine (3220 +/- 340 nM x min; P < 0.05). It is concluded that rifampicin limits the hepatic entrance of digoxin and reduced the hepatic exposure of digoxin to CYP3A by inhibiting the basolateral Oatp2 uptake transport, whereas quinidine increased the hepatic exposure of digoxin to CYP3A by inhibiting the canalicular P-gp transport. These data emphasize the importance of uptake and efflux transporters on hepatic drug metabolism.

The effects of captopril on serum digoxin concentrations were studied in 8 patients with severe (NYHA Class IV) congestive heart failure. Serum digoxin concentrations were determined before and after the administration of captopril for 1 week in patients on chronic digoxin therapy. Each patient who was taking 0.25 mg of digoxin PO q.d., was administered 12.5 mg of captopril PO t.i.d. for 7 days. The peak serum concentration of digoxin (Cmax) before and after (on Days 0 and 7) captopril administration was 1.7+/-0.2 ng/ml and 2.7+/-0.2 ng/ml, the time to peak (tmax) was 2.4+/-0.5 h and 1.3+/-0.2 h, and the area under the 24-hour digoxin concentration-time curve (AUC0-24h) was 30.0+/-1.5 ng x h/ml and 41.7+/-3.4 ng x h/ml, respectively. While captopril caused a significant increase in peak serum concentration and the area under the digoxin concentration-time curve, it decreased the time to digoxin peak (p = 0.01, p = 0.04, p = 0.01, respectively). No patient developed evidence of digoxin toxicity. Concomitant administration of captopril with digoxin increases serum digoxin concentration in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

Three structurally related peptides, ovine corticotropin-releasing factor, sauvagine, and urotensin I are selective mesenteric vasodilators in dogs. To assess the possible benefit of these peptides in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, they were compared with a nonselective vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside, in the anesthetized dog. Mesenteric blood flow was reduced by approximately 30%, without lowering of systemic arterial pressure, by either digoxin or pericardial tamponade. In the digoxin model, i.v. infusions of corticotropin-releasing factor, sauvagine, and urotensin I restored intestinal vascular resistance and mesenteric blood flow to control values, without causing a fall in systemic arterial blood pressure. In the tamponade model, only urotensin I was assessed, and it produced the same restoration of hemodynamic variables. On the other hand, in both models, i.v. infusions of nitroprusside, which were effective in correcting intestinal vascular resistance, produced a fall in arterial blood pressure (presumably because of systemic dilatation), which prevented restoration of mesenteric blood flow. Intestinal oxygen uptake was not altered by tamponade, but was reduced by 23% in the digoxin model, where it was restored to control values by both the peptides and nitroprusside. The increased oxygen extraction seen in both models was corrected by the peptides but not by nitroprusside, suggesting that nitroprusside may have a direct and offsetting metabolic effect on the gut.

Patients with new atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting, converted to normal sinus rhythm before hospital discharge, have a benign course. Antiarrhythmic therapy as short as 1 week may be appropriate in these patients.