High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Cardiovascular effects of intracerebroventricular injection of dopamine after selective MAO inhibition in rats.


Inhaled corticosteroid therapy suppresses nitric oxide levels (NO) of airway origin but not necessarily NO of alveolar or small airway origin. Systemic therapy with an oral anti-leukotriene agent may suppress NO production in distal airways and alveoli not reached by inhaled therapy.

Only randomised controlled trials conducted in adults or children with recurrent asthma where a LABA (for example, salmeterol or formoterol) or LTRA (for example, montelukast, pranlukast, zafirlukast) was added to ICS for a minimum of 28 days were considered for inclusion. Inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists and short courses of oral steroids were permitted as rescue medications. Other daily asthma treatments were permitted, providing the dose remained constant during the intervention period. Two reviewers independently reviewed the literature searches.

Montelukast was not significantly more effective than placebo for deltaFEV1[0-60 min] when added to standard therapy (0.08 vs. 0.07 L; least squares mean, 0.01; 95% confidence interval, -0.06 to 0.08; P = .78). No significant differences were found in the percentages of patients in whom treatment failed or the modified pulmonary index score after 60 minutes. Both treatments were well tolerated.

PIP (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant dose-dependent protection with respect to nasal rubbing, redness of nose, and sneezing (p < 0.001) following nasal challenge. PIP dose dependently reduced histamine, NO concentration (p < 0.001), as well as reduced expression of IL-6, IL-1β, and IgE (p < 0.001) as compared with the control group. Histopathology showed inhibition of infiltration of eosinophils and hyperplasia. It dose dependently reduced MSD and paw edema (p < 0.001).

To determine the agreement between self-report and pharmacy claims data for asthma medication possession.

In the studies reviewed, LCZ 5 mg/d was effective in reducing symptoms of PAR, SAR, and CIU and improving QoL, with an acceptable tolerabili-ty profile. There is a need for studies of longer durations, head-to-head comparisons against other anti-histamines, drug-interaction studies, safety studies in infants, and cost-effectiveness analyses.

In a double blind, placebo-controlled, three day doses, crossover study, patients were randomized to receive in sequence treatment with either a placebo or montelukast and assigned to one of seven groups that were tested 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 h after drug administration, respectively. For each group, the exercise challenge was always performed at the same hour on the first and third days of treatment.

In multivariate analyses higher impulse oscillometry reactance area was associated (P = .048) with a differential FEV₁ response favoring LABA over ICS step-up therapy, whereas higher urinary leukotriene E₄ levels were marginally (P = .053) related to a differential FEV₁ response favoring LTRA over LABA step-up therapy. Predictors of differential responses comparing ICS with LTRA step-up therapy were not apparent, probably because of suppression of allergic markers with low-dose ICS treatment. Minimal overlap was seen across FEV₁ and asthma control day predictors, suggesting distinct mechanisms related to lung function and asthma control day responses.

These data did not detect a consistent significant positive association between montelukast and NE in children with asthma.

Qualified patients were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with montelukast (10 mg once in the evening) or salmeterol (50 microg [2 puffs] twice daily).

We sought to evaluate potential predictors of asthma control and lung function responsiveness to step 3 therapy.

It has been well-documented that leukotrienes (LTs) are released in allergic lung inflammation and that they participate in the physiopathology of asthma. A role for LTs in innate immunity has recently emerged: Cys-LTs were shown to enhance FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Thus, using a rat model of asthma, we evaluated FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis and killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae by AMs. The effect of treatment with a cys-LT antagonist (montelukast) on macrophage function was also investigated. Male Wistar rats were immunized twice with OVA/alumen intraperitoneally and challenged with OVA aerosol. After 24 h, the animals were killed, and the AMs were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. Macrophages were cultured with IgG-opsonized red blood cells (50:1) or IgG-opsonized K. pneumoniae (30:1), and phagocytosis or killing was evaluated. Leukotriene C(4) and nitric oxide were quantified by the EIA and Griess methods, respectively. The results showed that AMs from sensitized and challenged rats presented a markedly increased phagocytic capacity via FcgammaR (10X compared to controls) and enhanced killing of K. pneumoniae (4X higher than controls). The increased phagocytosis was inhibited 15X and killing 3X by treatment of the rats with montelukast, as compared to the non-treated group. cys-LT addition increased phagocytosis in control AMs but had no effect on macrophages from allergic lungs. Montelukast reduced nitric oxide (39%) and LTC(4) (73%). These results suggest that LTs produced during allergic lung inflammation potentiate the capacity of AMs to phagocytose and kill K. pneumonia via FcgammaR.