High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Chemotherapeutic regimens that were considered effective to cure pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex].


EM523 (1-30 micrograms/kg) induced a dose-dependent increase in fed-type contractions. EM523-induced contractile activity was partially inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, and substance P antagonist. Atropine-resistant and EM523-induced contractions were further inhibited by 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and substance P antagonist, and the combined use of the two antagonists completely eliminated the atropine-resistant and EM523-induced contractions.

The mean QTc at preinduction period was 413.8 (20.8) ms. The mean Sevo alone and Sevo+Ondansetron QTcs were 432.5 (28.1) and 439.2 (27.6) ms, and the differences in QTc prolongation between stages were all significant (P < 0.01). Ondansetron increased Tp-e interval significantly; however, Tp-e/QT ratio was not different among three stages. There were no ECG abnormalities such as atrial or ventricular arrhythmia and T-wave abnormality in any patient.

Prospective controlled trials evaluating medication use in children with vomiting from gastroenteritis.

Tramadol or ondansetron are equally effective in preventing pain from propofol injection. The added benefit of a reduction in nausea and vomiting after operation in the ondansetron group may be a reason to prefer this drug.

Over 24 h, nausea was reduced from 42.9% in the control to 32.0% in the droperidol group, corresponding to a relative risk (RR) of 0.75 (95% CI from 0.66 to 0.84). Vomiting was reduced from 15.6% to 11.8%, and therefore associated with a similar RR of 0.76 (0.59-0.96). In the early postoperative period (0-2 h), droperidol prevented nausea and vomiting similarly, with an RR of 0.57 (0.46-0.69) for nausea and 0.56 (0.37-0.85) for vomiting. In the late postoperative period (2-24 h), the RR was again similar with 0.83 (0.72-0.96) for nausea compared with 0.89 (0.66-1.18) for vomiting but significantly less compared with the early postoperative period.

Resolution of nausea and vomiting in both patients.

The analgesic effect and its mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on inflammatory pain, especially in the rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), have not yet been studied. This study was designed to investigate the analgesic effect and its cholinergic and serotonergic mechanism of EA in the CIA rat model. To induce CIA, male Sprague-Dawley rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant, followed by a booster injection 14 days later. The analgesic effect was evaluated by tail flick latency (TFL). After induction of arthritis, the inflammatory pain threshold decreased as time passed and there was no big change of the pain threshold after 3 weeks. Three weeks after the first immunization, low frequency EA stimulation (2 Hz, 0.07 mA, 0.3 ms) delivered to Zusanli (ST36) for 30 min showed the analgesic effect. Also, the analgesic effect of EA was blocked by pretreatment with atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg i.p.), spiroxatrine (5-HT1a receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg i.p.), and ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg i.p.), but not by pretreatment with ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg i.p.). These results suggest that low frequency EA can relieve inflammatory pain in CIA and the analgesic effect of EA can be mediated by muscarinic cholinergic receptor, 5-HT1a and 5-HT3 receptors, but not by 5-HT2 receptor.

Ramosetron is a new selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist that reportedly has more potent antiemetic effects compared with other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ramosetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) with that of ondansetron or placebo in high-risk patients undergoing gynaecological surgery.

The field of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation has been expanded recently as a treatment for solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Severe emesis remains one of the main extramedullary side-effects of high-dose regimens during the first week of treatment. Traditional antiemetics such as chlorpromazine, diazepam, and phenothiazines are extensively used but are unable to control emesis. The new antiemetic ondansetron, a serotonin receptor (5HT3) antagonist appears to be superior to these drugs for cisplatin-induced emesis. The study we present here is an attempt to control emesis following high-dose regimens, during bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation, with ondansetron. To our knowledge no other paper has reported the efficacy of this antiemetic in such group of patients. A total of 29 patients who received highly emetogenic polychemotherapy as conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation were treated with ondansetron, which was given as an 8-mg i.v. short infusion prior the initiation of treatment and every 6 h thereafter for 3 days, and an 8-mg dose every 8 h for 5 additional days. All the patients had previously been treated with chemotherapy and were evaluable for response and toxicity. Complete and major protection of vomiting on day 1 was achieved by 76% of the patients, 58% on day 2 and 52% on day 3. Nausea was absent or mild in 79% of patients on day 1, 45% on day 2 and 41% on day 3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)