High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Clinical application of newer anti-epileptic drugs].


Seven trials of short duration are included (31 reports) and seven are excluded (15 reports). Apart from that of 'leaving the study early', all other results may be prone to bias and should be viewed with caution since dropout rates are high (48-61%) in each arm of all studies. There are data suggesting less people allocated quetiapine leave the study early (53%) than those in the placebo group (61%) (OR 0.67 CI 0.48-0. 95). Data incorporating considerable assumptions about the many people who left early suggest that global state and psychotic symptoms - both positive and negative - may be more helped by quetiapine than placebo. Although some of these data reach statistical significance their clinical importance is difficult to interpret. While the incidences of extrapyramidal side effects are not different between quetiapine and placebo, side effects such as dizziness and dry mouth are more prevalent in the quetiapine treated group. High proportions of trial participants also leave when quetiapine is compared to chlorpromazine or haloperidol (57% by six weeks). Quetiapine is as potent as chlorpromazine and haloperidol as regards global and mental state but it may cause higher incidences of dry mouth and sleepiness. Extrapyramidal side effects are the same as those of chlorpromazine but may be less than haloperidol. High dose quetiapine is better than low dose quetiapine with regard to leaving the study early, and limited data suggest that the higher dose is also better at marginally improving global state (n = 1, OR 0.70, CI 0.50-0.99, NNT 11). There are no clear differences between high and low dose groups in respect of extrapyramidal side effects.

Two positive studies evaluated adjunctive extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) showing inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. This preplanned, pooled analysis provides an opportunity for subgroup analyses investigating the influence of demographic and disease-related factors on observed responses. Additional post hoc analyses examined the efficacy of quetiapine XR against specific depressive symptoms including sleep.

Patients using atypical antipsychotics consistently achieve longer TTAD than patients treated with conventional antipsychotics. Nevertheless, estimated differences narrowed when analyses included only patients with schizophrenia. Risperidone performed better than olanzapine when diagnosis was not limited to schizophrenia, and quetiapine outperformed olanzapine and risperidone when the analysis did not control for treatment history. This latter result reflects the disproportionate use of quetiapine in long-duration augmentation episodes. There were no statistical differences across alternative atypical antipsychotics once the analysis excluded patients without a diagnosis of schizophrenia and included patient treatment history in the analysis.

During recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the use of psychotropic medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children. There is an emerging set of data to support this use.Mood stabilizers, including lithium and valproic acid (valproate sodium), have generally formed the mainstay of treatment in children and adolescents with BPD. However, the atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, aripiprazole, and quetiapine may be more effective as first-line treatment options and in some ways easier to use than the traditional mood stabilizers. As in adults, mood stabilization is often difficult to achieve in pediatric patients with BPD, and combined treatment with mood stabilizers and atypical antipscyhotics is commonly used. Data from controlled trials of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents with BPD are very limited, and hence, in the majority of cases physicians base their treatment decisions on data from case reports, case series, or open trials. More controlled studies of both monotherapy and polypharmacotherapy for BPD in children and adolescents are needed.

Some SGAs lead to substantially more metabolic side effects than other SGAs. When choosing an SGA for an individual patient these side effects with their potential cause of secondary diseases must be weighed against efficacy and characteristics of the individual patient.

Limitations included the open-label study design (although MADRS and laboratory measurements were performed by treatment-blinded raters) and relatively short study duration with no assessments in the continuation phase.

41 patients of bipolar I disorder with manic episode were enrolled and received combination treatment with quetiapine and lithium. Blood sampling and assessments were performed at baseline and after 8-week treatment. YMRS was used to evaluate the severity of manic symptoms at the same time of detecting plasma levels. A control group comprised of 36 age and gender matched healthy volunteers were enrolled, and their blood samples were assessed at the time of enrollment.