Cognitive evaluation of disease-modifying efficacy of galantamine and memantine in the APP23 model.
A 75-year-old woman took aceclofenac (100 mg/day) for 15 days for long-standing arthritis. Starting with erythema of the face she developed multiple target lesions with central bullae on her neck, chest, back, including the palmoplantar region. In several areas the lesions became confluent and showed wide detachment. The mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and genitalia also showed marked inflammation, most prominent were large erosions in the mouth. The clinical course culminated in an overall skin loss of about 15 % of the total body surface area.
This was a multicentre, randomized open-label study in which 418 patients with mild to moderate AKs were randomized into two treatment groups. Group A received diclofenac in HA for 3 months and group B for 6 months. Treatment efficacy was assessed by size measurement and a final biopsy of a defined marker AK. Quality of life was measured using the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire.
A prospective, randomized, masked, crossover study was performed. To determine the immediate effects associated with treatment, the study drug was instilled into the eye every 5 min for five doses, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment and every 15 min post-treatment for 60 min. To determine the chronic effects, the study drug was instilled every 12 h for 30 days, and corneal sensitivity of treated and untreated eyes was obtained prior to treatment on days 0 and 30. A washout period of at least 30 days occurred between drug crossover. Ambient temperature and humidity were measured throughout the study.
Bone marrow edema syndrome is a condition of unknown etiology, presenting with painful limping. It is characterized by normal radiographs, but magnetic resonance imaging findings change with bone marrow edema. When there is osteopenia in the radiographs, the condition is called transient osteoporosis. The term migratory bone marrow edema syndrome is used when there is involvement of another joint, or another compartment in the same joint, which typically occurs within 6 months of onset of primary symptoms. Here, a case of migratory bone marrow edema syndrome in a 47-year-old male patient, which was conservatively managed, is reported.
The analgesic efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac-potassium 50 mg were compared with those of glafenine 200 mg in 109 outpatients suffering from moderate to severe dental pain. Throughout the four-day trial period, patients (Diclofenac-potassium: n = 58, mean age = 32.84 +/- 12.0 yrs. Glafenine n = 51, mean age = 34.12 +/- 14.0 yrs.) were randomised, in a double-blind fashion, to receive one tablet of either medications three times daily, together with an antibiotic, ampicillin, 500 mg, 8 hourly. Half an hour following the administration of the first analgesic dose, both treatment groups showed highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) reductions in the mean pain level when compared with their baseline values. The mean decrease of pain level in diclofenac-potassium group after 1/2 hour was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than that in the glafenine group. Moreover, the percent of pain free patients after 1/2 hour in the diclofenac-potassium group was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with those in the glafenine group. The mean decreases in pain and tenderness on the second and fourth days, in relation to their initial values, were greater in the diclofenac-potassium treated patients than the glafenine treated ones. The overall evaluation of therapeutic effect was considered excellent in 72% of the diclofenac- potassium patients compared with 57% of the glafenine patients. Furthermore, 95% of the diclofenac-potassium patients, compared with 90% of the glafenine ones, expressed their willingness to use the trial medication again in similar conditions. None of the patients in both treatment groups discontinued the trial due to unwanted effects. Both therapies were well tolerated. Only one patient (1.72%) in the diclofenac-potassium treatment group experienced slight diarrhoea. It can be concluded from this study that both medications are effective and well tolerated in the management of dental pain. However, diclofenac-potassium with its fast onset of effect is particularly suitable in the management of acute painful conditions.
Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of an oral enzyme-rutosid combination (ERC) containing rutosid and the enzymes bromelain and trypsin, with that of diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 103 patients presenting with painful episodes of OA of the knee were treated for 6 weeks in two study centers in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial. Altogether, 52 patients were treated in the ERC group and 51 patients were treated in the diclofenac group. Primary efficacy criteria were Lequesne's Algofunctional Index (LFI) and a 'complaint index', including pain at rest, pain on motion and restricted function. The efficacy criteria were analyzed by applying the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test that provides the Mann-Whitney estimator (MW) as a measure of relevance. Non-inferiority was considered to be proven if the lower bound of the 97.5% one-sided confidence interval (CI-LB) was higher than MW = 0.36 (benchmark of not yet relevant inferiority). Both treatments resulted in clear improvements. Within the 6-week observation period, the mean value of the LFI decreased from 13.0 to 9.4 in the ERC group and from 12.5 to 9.4 in the diclofenac group. Non-inferiority of ERC was demonstrated by both primary criteria, LFI (MW = 0.5305; CI-LB = 0.4171) and complaint index (MW = 0.5434; CI-LB = 0.4296). Considerable improvements were also seen in secondary efficacy criteria, with a slight tendency towards superiority of ERC. The global judgment of efficacy by physician resulted in at least good ratings for 51.4% of the ERC patients, and for 37.2% of the diclofenac patients. In the majority of patients tolerability was judged in both drug groups as very good or good. The current study indicates that ERC can be considered as an effective and safe alternative to NSAIDs such as diclofenac in the treatment of painful episodes of OA of the knee. Placebo-controlled studies are now needed to confirm these results.