High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast: perspectives on biology and controversies in current management.


Most patients with positive case detection also had positive results on the CCT and FUT, especially when ARR was at least 1000 or PAC was at least 250 pg/ml under renin suppresion. Confirmatory testing for PA may not be needed in all patients with positive case detection.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been extensively studied in cardiovascular disorders in recent years. Particular attention has been paid to the role of ANP in the pathogenesis of hypertension and congestive heart failure and in the neurohormonal response to myocardial infarction. However, no published data are available on the significance of ANP in hypertensive patients with acute myocardial infarction.

In patients with CKD undergoing coronary procedures, furosemide-induced high urine output with matched hydration significantly reduces the risk of CIN and may be associated with improved in-hospital outcome. (Induced Diuresis With Matched Hydration Compared to Standard Hydration for Contrast Induced Nephropathy Prevention [MYTHOS]; NCT00702728).

Overall, 52.1% of horses eligible for participation in the study were examined, and horses that were examined did not differ from horses that were not examined in regard to age, sex distribution, or proportion of horses that won or finished in the first 3 positions. Horses with EIPH grades < 1 were 4.0 times as likely to win, 1.8 times as likely to finish in the first 3 positions, and 3.03 times as likely to be in the 90th percentile or higher for race earnings as were horses with grades > 2. Horses with EIPH grades > 1 finished significantly farther behind the winner than did horses without EIPH. However, odds that horses with grade 1 EIPH would win or finish in the first 3 positions were not significantly different from odds for horses without EIPH.

No adverse effects or modifications of the blood pressure were observed after captopril administration. The diuretic response was deeply worsened by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in each hydronephrotic kidney even when the basal study was only slightly abnormal (15-minute washout basal -27 +/- 16%, after captopril -9 +/- 13, p <0.005). After surgical correction the diuretic washout during angiotensin inhibition appeared normal in all patients (15-minute washout -56 +/- 14%). Separate renal function and parenchymal transit of MAG-3 were not modified by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, preoperatively or postoperatively.

To explore barriers to adherence to drug therapy identified by patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).

Four open-label, crossover studies were performed on six to eight healthy male volunteers. Orlistat was given in doses of 50 mg 3 times daily mid-meal for 7 (nifedipine and captopril) or 8 days (atenolol and furosemide). The four antihypertensive drugs (atenolol 100-mg tablet, furosemide 40-mg tablet, captopril 50-mg tablet and nifedipine 20-mg slow-release tablet) were administered in single doses twice, once before and once together, with orlistat at the end of the orlistat treatment period.

We studied symptomatic unselected consecutive furosemide-treated CHF patients hospitalized for various acute conditions. On admission, history taking, physical examination, chest x-ray, ECG and routine laboratory tests were performed. Subsequently, patients were divided into 2 subgroups, those with serum creatinine > or = 1.5 mg/dl (RF) and those with lower values. Following discharge, information concerning mortality and circumstance of death was obtained from hospital records and outpatient death certificates.

LAP was decreased in proportion to the dosage of furosemide, which did not significantly differ between IV and PO of the same dosages. E wave and E/Ea might be useful for the treatment evaluation of furosemide.

The effects of treatment of oleic acid pulmonary edema with dobutamine, furosemide, and hydralazine on cardiopulmonary function in 24 dogs were investigated. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) was adjusted to approximately 7 mm Hg; 45 min after oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg), dogs were randomly divided into a control group, in which PCWP was maintained at approximately 7 mm Hg, and into treatment groups as described above. Mean time-averaged PCWP was 2.3 mm Hg in dogs treated with dobutamine, 4.1 mm Hg with furosemide, and 4.4 mm Hg with hydralazine. Four hours of treatment with dobutamine and furosemide significantly (p less than .01) reduced accumulation of lung water compared with the control and hydralazine groups. Qs/Qt was lower (p less than .05) with dobutamine and furosemide compared with the other groups. In dogs given hydralazine, cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) remained constant over the 4 hr treatment interval. In contrast, in all other groups, SVR increased and CO decreased (both p less than .05). The short-term pulmonary effects of the above drugs are probably explained by differences in PCWP and/or by regional pulmonary vascular effects.

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to damage the vestibular and auditory sensory epithelia. Although loop diuretics enhance the cochleotoxic effect of aminoglycosides, it is not known whether concomitant administration of an aminoglycoside and a loop diuretic affects the vestibular system. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide upon the otolith organs and to compare it to the known vestibulotoxic effect of gentamicin. Five guinea pigs were injected with a single dose of both kanamycin (400 mg/kg, s.c.) and furosemide (100 mg/kg, i.v.), 5 animals received gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days, and 5 untreated animals served as controls. After 7 days, vestibular function was assessed by measuring vestibular short-latency evoked potentials (VsEPs) to linear acceleration stimuli and cochlear function by auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to clicks. Hair cell densities were determined in phalloidin-stained whole mounts of the utricles and saccules, and in midmodiolar sections of resin-embedded cochleae. Co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide had no significant effect on VsEPs and hair cell densities in the utricles and saccules were not reduced. ABR thresholds were increased to a great extent (by ∼60 dB), and histologically a severe loss of cochlear hair cells was observed. The effect of gentamicin, both on vestibular and cochlear function, was just the opposite. VsEP thresholds to horizontal stimulation were elevated and suprathreshold amplitudes showed a decrease, whereas cochlear function was not reduced. With this protocol, we have a tool to selectively induce cochlear or vestibular damage, which may be of interest to researchers and clinicians alike.