High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Economics of medicament therapies for osteoporosis].


A total of 171 patients with CAD whose LDL-C level was ≥ 100 mg/dl after treatment with atorvastatin (10mg/day) or rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/day) for 4 weeks were assigned to additionally receive ezetimibe (10mg/day) plus a statin or a double dose of statin for 12 weeks. The decreases in LDL-C (-30.0 ± 15.6 mg/dl vs. -19.2 ± 14.2 mg/dl) and the ratio of campesterol, an absorption marker, to total cholesterol levels (-1.35 ± 0.90 µg/mg vs. 0.33 ± 0.74 µg/mg) were greater in the ezetimibe-plus-statin group (P<0.05, respectively). The decrease in LDL-C level in the ezetimibe-plus-statin group was greatest in patients with baseline levels of higher absorption and lower synthesis markers and smallest in patients with baseline levels of lower absorption and higher synthesis markers (-34.3 ± 15.6 mg/dl vs. -21.5 ± 16.7 mg/dl, P<0.05). The decrease in LDL-C did not differ, irrespective of baseline levels of cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers, in the double-dose statin group, and was similar to that in patients with lower absorption and higher synthesis markers in the ezetimibe-plus-statin group.

High loading dose of rosuvastatin within 24 hr before elective PCI seems to decrease the incidence of periprocedural myocardial necrosis during a period of 12-months compared to the standard treatment.

This is the first trial investigating the effect of statins on apolipoproteins in ACS patients.

Our findings might raise the possibility of a potentially important antibacterial class effect for statins especially, atorvastatin and simvastatin.

Two hundred patients undergoing coronary surgery were enrolled. They were randomized to rosuvastatin (20 mg/d, n = 100) or placebo (n = 100) starting 1 week before the operation. Troponin I, myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB mass, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were used as markers of myocardial injury, and their values were determined at baseline and at regular intervals after the operation. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed before and after the operation.

Sixteen HIV-infected patients with protease inhibitor (PI)-related, persisting hypercholesterolaemia were treated with 10 mg a day rosuvastatin for 24 weeks. At the end of the observation period, the median reductions in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels versus median baseline values were 21.7 and 30.1%, respectively (P < 0.01). In our small pilot study, rosuvastatin was found to be effective for the treatment of PI-associated hyperlipidaemia, in association with a favourable tolerability profile, without significant clinical or laboratory adverse events.

To compare the cholesterol level goal attainment rates in patients receiving simvastatin doses recommended in clinical practice guidelines and simvastatin doses most frequently prescribed in clinical practice versus other statins at various dose levels, and to assess statin adherence rates in patients receiving all statins.

Data on patients purchasing atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, or simvastatin in 2002-2007 were retrieved from the nationwide Prescription Register. Outcome measures included the time trend in the numbers of purchasers and initiators of different statins, the morbidities of new users before and after the new policy, and the proportion of users of expensive statins switching to other statins.

From 2001 to 2013, at a single center in Brazil we enrolled 544 patients who underwent elective PCI and after exclusions for baseline biases in clinical and angiographic characteristics, yielding 528 patients, we prospectively randomly assigned them to either a high loading dose of Rosuvastatin before PCI (n = 264) or standard treatment (n = 264). After exclusions for biases in procedural characteristics a total of 487 patients underwent to end points analysis. The primary outcome was the incidence of MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) greater than three times the upper limit of normal.

23 trials enrolling 29,147 participants were included. A significant reduction in GFR was detected in placebo-treated compared to statin-treated patients (standard mean difference [SMD]: 0.056, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.028 to 0.083, p<0.01). In particular, a significant reduction in GFR was detected in placebo as compared to either R-treated (SMD: 0.052, CI: 0.022 to 0.081, p=0.001) or A-treated patients (SMD: 0.084, CI: 0.008 to 0.161, p=0.031). No significant difference in GFR was detected in 5 head-to-head studies comparing A to R (SMD: 0.043, CI: -0.041 to 0.126, p=0.319). In 9 studies comparing A to R, R treatment significantly increased the risk of proteinuria when compared to A (odds ratio [OR]: 0.656, CI: 0.440 to 0.977, p=0.038, heterogeneity p=0.026), but this effect was no longer significant when studies using highest therapeutic doses of R (40 mg/daily) were excluded from analysis, abolishing significant heterogeneity (OR: 1.505, CI: 0.827 to 2.739, p=0.181).

To evaluate the efficacy of switching from a previous statin monotherapy to ezetimibe/simvastatin (EZE/SIMVA) 10/20 mg vs. rosuvastatin (ROSUVA) 10 mg.