High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Electromechanical effects of the direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren) on the pulmonary vein and atrium.


This is the first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study showing statistical improvement of an H(1)-antihistamine in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis in all symptoms throughout the entire treatment period.

Stevens- Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and life-threatening condition. Although allopurinol, an antihyperuricemia drug, is the drug most commonly associated with SJS, more than 100 different causative drugs have been reported. Among hematologic drugs recently introduced into the market, drugs such as rituximab, imatinib, and bortezomib are reported. Here, we describe a patient with SJS while receiving lenalidomide in combination with prednisolone for treatment-naïve multiple myeloma. Although SJS has been reported rarely as an adverse reaction to Lenalidomide, this drug should be considered in the etiology of SJS, and the increased number of prescriptions of Lenalidomide for the therapy of multiple myeloma has to stress the awareness of its potentially serious side-effects.

Second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) have been developed to reduce or eliminate the sedation and anticholinergic adverse effects that occur with older H1 receptor antagonists. This article evaluates second-generation antihistamines, including acrivastine, astemizole, azelastine, cetirizine, ebastine, fexofenadine, ketotifen, loratadine, mizolastine and terfenadine, for significant features that affect choice. In addition to their primary mechanism of antagonising histamine at the H1 receptor, these agents may act on other mediators of the allergic reaction. However, the clinical significance of activity beyond that mediated by histamine H1 receptor antagonism has yet to be demonstrated. Most of the agents reviewed are metabolised by the liver to active metabolites that play a significant role in their effect. Conditions that result in accumulation of astemizole, ebastine and terfenadine may prolong the QT interval and result in torsade de pointes. The remaining agents reviewed do not appear to have this risk. For allergic rhinitis, all agents are effective and the choice should be based on other factors. For urticaria, cetirizine and mizolastine demonstrate superior suppression of wheal and flare at the dosages recommended by the manufacturer. For atopic dermatitis, as adjunctive therapy to reduce pruritus, cetirizine, ketotifen and loratadine demonstrate efficacy. Although current evidence does not suggest a primary role for these agents in the management of asthma, it does support their use for asthmatic patients when there is coexisting allergic rhinitis, dermatitis or urticaria.

Many advances have been made recently in the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). We hypothesize that this should have resulted in fewer CHF patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) and fewer being intubated.

Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy.

A therapeutic response was achieved in 43.8% of patients with a combination of two antihistamines, 68.4% of patients with three antihistamines and 76.9% of patients with high dosage desloratadine. The average reduction in pruritus was 57.5% (two antihistamines), 67.4% (three antihistamines) and 89% (desloratadine). Adverse drug effects were observed rarely.

There continues to be a great deal of interest in the anti-asthmatic role of antihistamines. Antihistamines have recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties that are more extensive than simply the blocking of histamine receptors. For example, new evidence suggests that the suppression of cell adhesion molecule expression occurs with these drugs. The anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of antihistamines have been evaluated in patients with both allergic asthma and rhinitis, given the established association between allergic inflammation of the upper and lower airways, with evidence to suggest that antihistamines have clinically relevant anti-asthmatic properties. As well as conferring benefits in asthma symptom control and the measurement of lung function, studies assessing the effect of histamine receptor antagonists on bronchial hyperresponsiveness suggest that there is bronchoprotection during both methacholine and mannitol challenges. Recently, there has also been considerable interest in the effect of combining an antihistamine with a leukotriene receptor antagonist. This combination has an anti-asthmatic effect that is greater than that of either drug given alone and may be comparable to inhaled corticosteroid therapy.

All active treatments showed wheal suppression superior to placebo after 210 min for loratadine (P = 0.04); 90 min for fexofenadine (P = 0.009); and 60 min for cetirizine (P = 0.02), while flare suppression was significantly marked after 150 min (P = 0.0008) for loratadine; 90 min for fexofenadine (P = 0.0001), and 60 min for cetirizine (P = 0.006). All drugs except loratadine demonstrated a 95% suppression of wheal superior to the placebo (P = 0.001 for fexofenadine; P = 0.0001 for cetirizine). Only fexofenadine exhibited a 95% suppression of flare statistically superior to placebo (P = 0.02). Discrepancies among the effects of these 3 antihistamines were also detected.