High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Evidence-based dermatology.

2017-06-02

The aim of this study is to quantify the extent of ill-founded off-label drug prescriptions in Dutch general practice. The study is based upon information on both the prescription itself and the patient's medical history.

Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral challenge with increasing doses of etoricoxib.

Etoricoxib is a suitable premedication before traumatic orthopedic surgery as it enhanced postoperative analgesia and reduced the need for morphine.

We enrolled 34,701 patients with mean duration of therapy of 18 months. Rates were 0.32 and 0.38 lower GI clinical events per 100 patient-years for etoricoxib and diclofenac (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.13). Bleeding was the most common event (rates of 0.19 and 0.23 per 100 patient-years, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed significant risk factors to be prior lower GI event (HR = 4.06; 95% CI, 2.93-5.62) and age >or=65 years (HR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.45-2.71).

A selection of heteroaryl fluorosulfates were readily synthesized using commercial SO2F2 gas. These substrates are highly efficient coupling partners in the Suzuki reaction. Through judicious selection of Pd catalysts the fluorosulfate functionality is differentiated from bromide and chloride; the order of reactivity being: -Br> -OSO2 F> -Cl. Exploiting this trend allowed the stepwise chemoselective synthesis of a number of polysubstituted pyridines, including the drug Etoricoxib.

Different data suggest the involvement of specific inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Cyclooxygenase (COX), which catalyses the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, may play a significant role in seizure-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the brain and also increased during/after seizures. COX-2 inhibitors may thus attenuate inflammation associated with brain disorders. We studied whether early long-term treatment (17 consecutive weeks starting from 45 days postnatal age) with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg/day per os), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, was able to prevent/reduce the development of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats, a recognized animal model of absence epilepsy and epileptogenesis. Drug effects on the incidence, duration and properties of absence seizure spike-wave discharges (SWDs) were measured both 1 and 5 months after treatment withdrawal; furthermore, the acute effects of etoricoxib on SWDs in 6-month-old WAG/Rij rats were measured. Early long-term treatment (ELTT) with etoricoxib led to an ∼40% long-lasting (5 months) reduction in the development of spontaneous absence seizures in adult WAG/Rij rats thus exhibiting antiepileptogenic effects. Acutely administered etoricoxib (10 and 20mg/kg i.p.) also had anti-absence properties, significantly reducing the number and duration of SWDs by ∼50%. These results confirm the antiepileptogenic effects of COX-2 inhibitors and suggest the possible role of COX-2, prostaglandin synthesis and consequent neuroinflammation in the epileptogenic process underlying the development of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

Experimental animals were divided into four groups as liver I/R control (LIRC), 50 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-50), 100 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-100), and healthy group (HG). ETO-50 and ETO-100 groups were administered etoricoxib, while LIRC and HG groups were orally given distilled water by gavage. Hepatic artery was clamped for one hour to provide ischemia, and then reperfusion was provided for 6 hours. Oxidant, antioxidant, and COX-2 gene expressions were studied in the liver tissues. ALT and AST were measured.

The NSAID etoricoxib is a selective inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), approved for treatment of patients with chronic arthropathies and musculoskeletal and dental pain. The rate of absorption of etoricoxib is moderate when given orally (the maximum plasma drug concentration occurs after approximately 1 hour), and the extent of absorption is similar with oral and intravenous doses. Etoricoxib is extensively protein bound, primarily to plasma albumin, and has an apparent volume of distribution of 120 L in humans. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of etoricoxib increases in proportion to increasing oral doses between 5 and 120 mg. The elimination half-life of approximately 20 hours in healthy subjects enables once-daily dosing. Etoricoxib is eliminated following biotransformation to carboxylic acid and glucuronide metabolites that are excreted in urine and faeces, with little of the drug (<1%) being eliminated unchanged in the urine. Etoricoxib is metabolized primarily by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme. Plasma concentrations (AUC) of etoricoxib appear not to be different in patients with chronic renal insufficiency compared with individuals who have normal renal function. Compared with healthy subjects, it has been reported that the AUC is increased by approximately 40% in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. No inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 or 3A4 are expected to occur with etoricoxib. Coadministration of etoricoxib with other drugs has been examined only to a limited extent, thus further assessment is necessary. Etoricoxib has been assessed for the management of several specific disease states, including pain, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, and has shown similar efficacy in comparison with traditional NSAIDs (including naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) in these conditions. Etoricoxib has demonstrated a significant reduction in gastrointestinal toxicity compared with many traditional NSAIDs. The renal adverse effects of etoricoxib appear to be similar to those of other NSAIDs, and the cardiovascular adverse effects of this selective COX-2 inhibitor require further clinical scrutiny. Further study is necessary to delineate the relevance of the pharmacokinetic disposition in terms of the clinical benefits and risks of etoricoxib compared with other options in the clinical arsenal.