High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[First cases of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bangui Central African Republic: efficacy of metronidazole].


Data from three randomized double-blind RA trials were evaluated. The patients had received 100 mg leflunomide (then 20 mg/day in 807 cases), methotrexate (15-20 mg/day in 669 cases), sulphasalazine (2 g/day in 132 cases) and placebo (in 209 cases). HAQ scores and outcomes were assessed using the American College of Rheumatology core data set. Detailed statistical analyses were made of changes in outcome variables at 1 and 6 months, changes in HAQ scores at 1-12 months, and effect sizes for outcome variables at 6 and 12 months. Multiple regression models of changes in HAQ scores were evaluated using backwards stepwise linear regression.

The novel immunomodulatory agent leflunomide exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory action. This isoxazole derivative is chemically unrelated to any hitherto applied immunosuppressants. As a prodrug leflunomide is completely converted to its active metabolite A 77 1726 (M1) which blocks the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme of the pyrimidine de novo synthesis. Drug-related adverse effects are mild, dose-related and reversible, characterising leflunomide as a safe immunosuppressant. While up to now leflunomide has just been approved for therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, its mechanism of action affects multiple inflammatory pathways, thereby suggesting it to be a potent therapeutic agent in autoimmune diseases, graft rejection, and tumour therapy. First dermatological experience has been gained in psoriasis and bullous pemphigoid. The role of leflunomide in the dermatologist's therapeutic armamentarium will evolve during the next years.

The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel. The lice and eggs were found in three combs, one of which was recovered from archaeological excavations in the Hatzeva area of the Judean desert, and two of which found in Moa, in the Arava region, close to the Dead Sea. Results show that the head lice remains dating approximately to 2,000 years old have a cytb haplogroup A, which is worldwide in distribution, and haplogroup B, which has thus far only been found in contemporary lice from America, Europe, Australia and, most recently, Africa. More specifically, this haplogroup B has a B36 haplotype, the most common among B haplogroups, and has been present in America for at least 4,000 years. The present findings confirm that clade B lice existed, at least in the Middle East, prior to contacts between Native Americans and Europeans. These results support a Middle Eastern origin for clade B followed by its introduction into the New World with the early peoples. Lastly, the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii DNA was demonstrated by qPCR and sequencing in four head lice remains belonging to clade A.

Eighty four rats were divided into seven groups. Group 1: Sham control, group 2: the vehicle control, group 3: methotrexate group, group 4-5: leflunomide (5 and 10mg/kg/day) groups, group 6-7: combination 1 and 2 [methotrexate+leflunomide (5 and 10mg/kg/day)] groups, respectively.

A Markov model study was performed. The following treatment strategies were considered: 1) usual treatment; 2) treatment with leflunomide, in the case of nonresponse after 3 months, switch to usual treatment; 3) TNF-blocking treatment, in the case of nonresponse after 3 months, switch to usual treatment; 4) treatment with leflunomide, in the case of nonresponse, switch to TNF-blocking treatment, in the case of nonresponse to TNF-blocking treatment, switch to usual treatment; 5) TNF-blocking treatment, in the case of nonresponse, switch to leflunomide treatment, in the case of nonresponse to leflunomide, switch to usual treatment. Expected patient-years in the different Markov states, costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared between the treatment strategies; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated.

In naïve mice, LEF significantly decreased the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in spleens (P < 0.05), but not in lymph nodes, though LEF enhanced the percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in CD4 single positive cells in the thymocytes and blood (P < 0.05). Furthermore, LEF significantly decreased the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in the spleens of mice that received allogeneic BMCs.

Eighty-eight live births in a total of 130 pregnancies were reported in patients who received anti-TNF before or during pregnancy. The rate of spontaneous abortion was highest among patients exposed to anti-TNF at the time of conception (with MTX/LEF 33% and without MTX/LEF 24%). This compared with 17% spontaneous abortions in those with prior exposure to anti-TNF and 10% spontaneous abortions in the control group. Ten terminations were performed.