High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Gastroduodenal tolerability of lumiracoxib vs placebo and naproxen: a pilot endoscopic study in healthy male subjects.


This is an effective method for use of MDIs to deliver inhaled drugs to small laboratory animals, and it should be valuable for investigations of treatment effects, as well as for in vivo testing of delivery devices.

Four weeks of sub-antimicrobial doses of clarithromycin may improve pulmonary function and decrease eosinophilic inflammation in children with asthma.

To evaluate patient satisfaction with two breath-actuated powder inhalers (Diskhaler and Diskus), investigators asked patients to complete questionnaires as part of a randomized, double-masked, double-dummy, placebo-controlled study of fluticasone propionate powder (500 mg twice daily) in the treatment of chronic persistent asthma. At baseline, patients rated the importance of various inhaler attributes (i.e., ease of use, ease of loading with medication, ease of holding and operating, ease of cleaning, and ease of telling how many doses of medication are left). After 2 weeks of placebo and 6 and 12 weeks of active therapy, patients rated the inhalers on these same attributes. They also rated their general satisfaction with the inhalers and how comfortable they were using them. After 12 weeks, patients also rated the durability and convenience of carrying each device and were asked to indicate which they preferred. Data were available from 213 patients. All seven inhaler attributes measured were considered important by the majority of patients (71% to 91%), contributing to the validity of the patient-rated performance assessments. After 12 weeks of use, 57% to 88% of patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the performance of the Diskhaler on all attributes; a high level of overall satisfaction (72%) and comfort (79%) was reported with this inhaler. Patients rated the performance of the Diskus inhaler very favorably, with 76% to 96% expressing a high level of satisfaction on all attributes; a high level of overall satisfaction (87%) and comfort (85%) was reported with this inhaler. At end point, 61.4% preferred the Diskus inhaler, 25.4% preferred the Diskhaler inhaler, and 13.2% expressed no preference. These breath-actuated powder inhalers may be acceptable alternatives to traditional metered-dose inhalers for the treatment of patients with asthma.

Thirty subjects (15 Caucasian, 15 Japanese) met entry criteria and were randomized; all 30 subjects completed the study. At the inhaled Fp total doses evaluated (400 and 800 μg), the shapes of plasma concentration-vs.-time curves and systemic exposure (AUC0-t and Cmax) were similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Geometric mean ratios (Japanese/Caucasian) for AUC0-t ranged from 1.11 to 1.15, and for Cmax ranged from 0.90 to 1.05, with no substantial differences between ethnic groups. In both ethnic groups, and in the combined population, systemic exposure (AUC0-t and Cmax) was highest for Fp MDPI 800 μg, followed by Fp MDPI 400 μg, and last by Fp Diskus 400 μg. No clinical laboratory, vital signs, or physical examination findings were considered clinically significant.

The groups were well balanced on entry except that the treatment group had a history of more prolonged episodes. During the trial there was no significant difference in the number of episodes in the treatment and control groups (27 and 37, respectively), in the severity of nocturnal symptoms (mean score 1.33 and 1.22, respectively, confidence interval of difference -0.24 to +0.47) or in daytime symptoms, activity or total scores during episodes. Compliance was estimated to be over 50% in 43 of the children.

We analyzed FEV1, PC20 methacholine and PC20 AMP, (differential) cell counts in sputum and blood in ex-, current- and never-smokers at baseline (n=114), after 2-week treatment with fluticasone 500 or 2000 μg/day (n=76) and after 1-year treatment with fluticasone 500 μg/day or a variable dose of fluticasone based on a self-management plan (n=64).

Differences in inhaled fluticasone bioavailability between these holding chambers in children with asthma corroborate differences reported in earlier in vitro aerosol studies.

The bronchial epithelium provides protection against pathogens from the inhaled environment through the formation of a highly-regulated barrier. In order to understand the pulmonary diseases melioidosis and tularemia caused by Burkholderia thailandensis and Fransicella tularensis, respectively, the barrier function of the human bronchial epithelium were analysed. Polarised 16HBE14o- or differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were exposed to increasing multiplicities of infection (MOI) of B. thailandensis or F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain and barrier responses monitored over 24-72 h. Challenge of polarized BECs with either bacterial species caused an MOI- and time-dependent increase in ionic permeability, disruption of tight junctions, and bacterial passage from the apical to the basolateral compartment. B. thailandensis was found to be more invasive than F. tularensis. Both bacterial species induced an MOI-dependent increase in TNF-α release. An increase in ionic permeability and TNF-α release was induced by B. thailandensis in differentiated BECs. Pretreatment of polarised BECs with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate reduced bacterial-dependent increases in ionic permeability, bacterial passage, and TNF-α release. TNF blocking antibody Enbrel(®) reduced bacterial passage only. BEC barrier properties are disrupted during respiratory bacterial infections and targeting with corticosteroids or anti-TNF compounds may represent a therapeutic option.