High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Induction of c-jun and TGF-beta 1 in Fischer 344 rats during amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

2017-06-01

The American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, reviewed and analyzed the current literature for the purpose of developing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review included several key reports, including an evidence review from the McMaster Evidence-Based Practice Center (supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), a report from the Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment, the Multimodal Treatment for ADHD comparative clinical trial (supported by the National Institute of Mental Health), and supplemental reviews conducted by the subcommittee. These reviews provided substantial information about different treatments for ADHD and their efficacy in improving certain characteristics or outcomes for children with ADHD as well as adverse effects and benefits of multiple modes of treatment compared with single modes (eg, medication or behavior therapies alone). The reviews also compared the effects of different medications. Other evidence documents the long-term nature of ADHD in children and its classification as a chronic condition, meriting the application of general concepts of chronic-condition management, including an individual treatment plan with a focus on ongoing parent and child education, management, and monitoring. The evidence strongly supports the use of stimulant medications for treating the core symptoms of children with ADHD and, to a lesser degree, for improving functioning. Behavior therapy alone has only limited effect on symptoms or functioning of children with ADHD, although combining behavior therapy with medication seems to improve functioning and may decrease the amount of (stimulant) medication needed. Comparison among stimulants (mainly methylphenidate and amphetamines) did not indicate that 1 class outperformed the other.

Injuries represent the largest disease burden and most common cause of death in children. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased mortality, with accidents being the most common cause of death in ADHD. However, it is not known whether pharmacological treatment has any modifying effect on the risk of injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD.

A total of 262 patients was treated with atomoxetine. The mean dose for the respective visit intervals ranged between 1.15 and 1.17 mg/kg per day. Quality of life as reflected by the degree of perceived difficulties improved over time. Change in GIPD scores was greatest within the first 2 weeks. The course of the mean GIPD total scores over time showed a similar pattern among the three different rater perspectives. However, patients perceived the degree of difficulties as significantly less compared to parents and physicians. Agreement of ratings was highest between physicians and parents.

Freezing of gait (FoG) is one of the most troublesome symptoms associated with Parkinson disease (PD). This symptom usually does not respond to dopaminergic therapy, possibly because it is mediated via noradrenergic, rather than dopaminergic, deficiency. As atomoxetine enhances noradrenergic transmission we postulated that it may be effective in the treatment of FoG and enrolled 5 PD patients who had this gait abnormality, both when "on" or "off" levodopa, into a double-blind, randomized trial. Although an improvement in total Gait and Balance Scale (GABS) score was noted in patients treated with atomoxetine as compared to placebo, this did not reach statistical significance, possibly because of a small sample size. Further studies in a larger population of patients with FoG are needed to determine whether atomoxetine is a useful drug in the treatment of this, often disabling, feature of PD.

Atomoxetine is a specific inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether polymorphisms in the NET/SLC6A2 gene may influence atomoxetine response in ADHD. Two independent cohorts of 160 and 105 ADHD children treated for 6 weeks with atomoxetine (0.5-1.8 mg/kg per day) were genotyped on CYP2D6, which metabolizes atomoxetine, and 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NET/SLC6A2 gene. Response was defined as a minimum decrease of 25% in ADHD Rating Scale IV-Parent Version and a Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score less than or equal to 2 at week 6. Interindividual response was independent of the genetic variants of CYP2D6. Significant (p<0.05) associations between 20 NET/SLC6A2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical efficacy in atomoxetine responders, compared with non-responders, were observed. The genomic region across exons 4 to 9 of NET/SLC6A2, where 36 SNPs have been genotyped, was associated with treatment response in both cohorts (p<0.01, odds ratio=2.2 and p=0.026, odds ratio=6.3, respectively), in the combined cohort (p<0.01, odds ratio=1.83), and in the subgroup of Caucasians only (p=0.02, odds ratio=1.8). Clinical efficacy of atomoxetine treatment in ADHD shows potential dependence upon a series of genetic polymorphisms of its mechanistic target, the norepinephrine transporter. Taking into account the high heritability of ADHD, the significance of the present finding and replication of a similar haplotype allele sequence result in an independent cohort, it is suggested that further assessment of this region could be useful in determining response to atomoxetine in ADHD.