High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Long-term safety and efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate in patients with focal seizures: results of the 1-year ESLIBASE retrospective study.

2017-05-30

The clinical consequences (therapeutic and toxic) of drug acetylation polymorphism are reviewed for procainamide, hydralazine, phenelzine, isoniazid, and salicylazosulfapyridine. Genetic slow acetylators are more likely than rapid acetylators to experience the following adverse drug reactions: (1) earlier development of procainamide-induced antinuclear antibody; (2) earlier and more frequent development of procainamide-induced systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); (3) hydralazine-induced SLE; (4) spontaneous SLE; (5) drowsiness and nausea from phenelzine; (6) cyanosis, hemolysis, and transient reticulocytosis from salicylazosulfapyridine; and (7) polyneuropathy after isoniazid therapy. The incidence of isoniazid hepatitis may, however, be more common in rapid than than in slow acetylators. Genetic slow acetylators are also more likely than rapid acetylators to experience greater therapeutic responses from similar doses of the following: phenelzine, hydralazine provided beta blockers are concurrently used, and isoniazid if once weekly therapy is used. Thus, knowledge of the acetylator phenotype of a patient can help determine the relative risk for some drug-related toxic and therapeutic responses.

This study was performed to elucidate the role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the death of corneal epithelial cells after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation.

A new non-invasive technique has been assessed that permits the localisation of the site of permeability changes with the gastrointestinal tract.

Initial therapy with a combination of DMARDs in early RA results in higher rates of patients achieving modified MDA and strict ACR remission even over the long term than initial single-DMARD therapy. Targeting remission with tight clinical controls results in good functional and clinical outcomes in most RA patients.

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity syndrome. It presents with severe cutaneous eruption, fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, haematological abnormalities with eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytes and may also involve other organs. The multi-organ involvement differentiates this entity from other common drug eruptions. DRESS has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality compared to other adverse drug reactions. Sulphasalazine hypersensitivity is rarely reported and we wish to highlight a case of sulfasalazine-induced DRESS presenting as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, hepatitis and haematological abnormalities in a 49-year-old Indian woman.

1. Corticosteroid drugs are widely employed for the treatment of active inflammatory bowel disease. Not all patients receiving corticosteroid treatment, however, respond satisfactorily, their disease either remaining active in spite of continued treatment, or relapsing upon corticosteroid withdrawal. Raised levels of autoantibodies to lipocortin-I, a corticosteroid-inducible protein with anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, in patients receiving chronic oral corticosteroid therapy have been associated with poor clinical response in rheumatoid arthritis. 2. To determine whether a similar mechanism is responsible for the variable clinical response to corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease, we have measured circulating lipocortin-I antibody levels in sera from affected patients and related them to disease activity, treatment and subsequent outcome. 3. IgM, but not IgG, lipocortin-I antibody levels were elevated in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease compared with healthy control subjects. In patients with Crohn's disease not taking corticosteroids, IgM lipocortin-I antibody levels were directly related to disease activity scored clinically. 4. IgM lipocortin-I antibody levels were higher in patients receiving sulphasalazine or no treatment and in patients receiving corticosteroids who responded to treatment within 2 months (steroid responders) than in those patients undergoing long-term corticosteroid therapy because of continued disease activity or repeated relapse on corticosteroid withdrawal (steroid non-responders). 5. The high levels of IgM lipocortin-I antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease not taking corticosteroids provides further evidence of disturbed immunity in inflammatory bowel disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.