High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Medial transconjunctival intrinsic optic nerve biopsy: surgical technique and indications.


The scientific and trivial names of the plants are given (trivials in Spanish marked by an asterisk). They had the following trophozoite mortality (mean +/- SD in percent): Justicia spicigera (muicle*) = 91 +/- 0.5; Lipia beriandieri (oregano) = 90 +/- 0.6; Psidium guajava (guava) = 87 +/- 1.0; positive control of tinidazol = 79 +/- 1.9; Punica granutus (granado*) = 78 +/- 1.3; Magnifera indica (mango) = 77 +/- 1.0; Plantago major (lante*) = 76 +/- 1.2; Cupressus semperbirens (cipres) = 73 +/- 1.2; Castella tormentosa (chaparro amargoso*) = 70 +/- 0.7; Hematoxilon campechanum (palo de Campeche*) = 67 +/- 1.2. Without or with a low mean activity were Prosopis juliflora (mesquite*) and Rizophora mangle (mangle*) with 0%, Oriza sativa (rice) with 5%, Capsicum annum (pimiento*) with 21% and Persea americana (avocado) with 23%. There were no associations of the antigiardiasic effect with concentration or osmolality of the extracts.

The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds.

Aqueous extracts of leaves of A. indica, A. vasica, bulbs of A. cepa, cloves of A. sativum and pure gel of A. vera leaves, were tested in vitro for their activity against two MDR isolates (DKU-156 and JAL-1236), reference susceptible strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv as well as rapid grower mycobacterial pathogen M. fortuitum (TMC-1529) using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J) medium and colorimetric BacT/ ALERT 3D system. Activity in L-J medium was evaluated by percentage inhibition which was calculated by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing as compared to extract free controls.

Our findings showed that all these plants exhibited activity against MDR isolates of M. tuberculosis. While the anti-TB activity of A. vera, A. vasica and A. sativum against MDR isolates confirm earlier results, activity of the extracts of A. indica and A. cepa is reported for the first time. Further studies aimed at isolation and identification of active substances from the extracts which exhibited promising activities, need to be carried out.

Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential.

Cerebral ischemia activates ERK and Akt pathways. We studied whether these activations were affected by treatment with the protective growth factor transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and whether they were mediated through N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The middle cerebral artery was occluded in rats and signaling was studied 1 h later. Noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 was injected i.p. before the occlusion, whereas in other rats TGF-alpha was given intraventricularly before and after occlusion. Ischemia caused ERK phosphorylation in the nucleus, localized in the endothelium and neurons. Phosphorylation of ERK was prevented by TGF-alpha, but it was enhanced in the nucleus and cytoplasm by MK-801. Also, MK-801 but not TGF-alpha increased p-Akt. Results suggest that preventing ERK activation is related to the protective effect of TGF-alpha, whereas the protective effect of MK-801 is associated with activation of pro-survival Akt. While results support that NMDA receptor signaling precludes Akt activation, we did not find evidence to support that it underlies ischemia-induced ERK phosphorylation. This study illustrates that neuroprotection results from a fine balance between death and survival signaling pathways.

Some studies suggest that schizophrenia may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes, independently of antipsychotic medications and other confounding factors. Previous studies have also suggested that there is an increased prevalence of diabetes in the relatives of schizophrenia probands.

In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.