Montelukast plus cetirizine in the prophylactic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: influence on clinical symptoms and nasal allergic inflammation.
1180 patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infection received single-dose ciprofloxacin regimens ranging from 100 mg to 2000 mg to demonstrate microbiologic efficacy and to determine the minimum effective dose. Eight of 18 studies were randomized, controlled trials with ampicillin/probenecid, amoxicillin/probenecid, ceftriaxone, or spectinomycin as control drugs.
The data illustrate the relation between resistance to antimicrobial drug therapy and failure of patients with otitis media to improve. They also highlight the importance of diagnostic tympanocentesis in establishing the presence of resistant microorganisms.
22/44 (55%) cephalosporins were third-generation, which accounted for more than 50% of total expenditure. The top five cephalosporins (sorted by their defined daily doses) were cefodizime sodium, cefoperazone/sulbactam sodium, cefaclor, cefixime and cefmenoxime hydrochloride, which were used 182.93, 110.63, 109.09, 101.47 and 100.05 defined daily dose per 10,000 days, respectively. Third-generation cephalosporins were responsible for 747/1337 ADEs (55.87%). In particular, 208 episodes (15.56%) were associated with ceftriaxone. The most frequently reported damages were involved in the skin and its appendages (967, 68.92%). 603 (45.10%) were identified as definite in causality evaluation. Cefaclor was found to be safer than other cephalosporins, whereas ceftriaxone was found to be less safe.
The results indicate that there is no direct link between the altered pharmacokinetics of centchroman and the failure of pharmacological effect. The pharmacological interaction with amoxicillin could not be explained on the basis of alteration in the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of centchroman, indicating that different mechanisms are involved. The findings, however, suggest that amoxicillin coadministration may result in pharmacological interaction with centchroman and that caution should be taken in clinical practice.
This study compared disk diffusion testing by NCCLS methodology, the Jarlier double disk test, a disk-on-disk test, a modified three-dimensional test and the E test method for their sensitivity and specificity in detecting TEM- and SHV-related ESBL producers. Three negative and 22 positive controls were studied. These were two Klebsiella pneumoniae and 23 Escherichia coli transconjugants. Seventeen beta-lactam antibiotics were tested: cefamandole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefixime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, cefsulodin, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, cefepime, cefpirome and aztreonam.
The global emergence of pathogens of urinary-tract infections resistant to ciprofloxacin or producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) led us to investigate the activity of older antimicrobials such as cefprozil and cefixime against a recent broad collection of urine enterobacteria from 2012 and 2013.
Antibiotic therapy for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections has evolved owing to the development of resistance to penicillin and tetracycline therapy. A variety of antimicrobials, including the fluoroquinolones, have been proposed as useful alternatives.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and it can facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Gonorrhea is the second most frequently reported communicable disease in the United States, with 361,705 reported cases in 2001. During the 1980s, gonococcal resistance to penicillin and tetracycline became widespread; as a result, CDC recommended using cephalosporins as first-line treatment for gonorrhea. Since 1993, CDC also has recommended using fluoroquinolones (i.e., ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, or levofloxacin) for gonorrhea treatment. Fluoroquinolone therapy is used widely because it is a relatively inexpensive, oral, and single-dose therapy. However, fluoroquinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) is being identified more frequently. This report summarizes investigations of increases in QRNG in Hawaii and California in 2001 and provides data to support the recommendation that cephalosporins (i.e., ceftriaxone or cefixime) be used instead of fluoroquinolones as first-line treatment for gonorrhea acquired in these two states. The increases in QRNG highlight the importance of monitoring gonococcal resistance throughout the United States to guide local treatment decisions.
A comparative study of cefixime (CFIX), a new oral cephem antibiotic, was carried out at the Department of Urology, Nagoya University Hospital and its four affiliated hospitals to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of two dosage regimens of CFIX, given either in twice daily doses (BID group) or once daily dose (UID group), in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Forty six female patients (BID group) were administered the daily dose of 200 mg in two divided doses for 3 days, 30 female patients (UID group) were administered 200 mg once daily for 3 days. The clinical efficacy was evaluated in 33 cases from the BID group and in 22 cases from the UID group, respectively, according to the criteria recommended by the Japan UTI Committee. In the BID group, the clinical efficacy was evaluated as excellent in 18 cases, moderate in 13 and poor in 2, with an overall clinical effectiveness rate of 94%. In the UID group, it was evaluated as excellent in 9 cases, moderate in 12 and poor in 1, with an overall clinical effectiveness rate of 96%. Safety was monitored in 71 patients, and only one case of stomatitis was seen in the UID group. This findings suggest that 200 mg once daily dosing regimen of cefixime is as effective as 100 mg twice daily dosing regimen in treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis, and is well tolerated in terms of safety.