High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

New treatments for cocaine dependence: a focused review.


In this article, we review the current literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RIP and discuss the risks and benefits associated with each option, which includes ketoconazole (KTZ), 5-α-reductase inhibitors and other hormonal therapies, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, intracavernosal sympathomimetic injection, oral sympathomimetic agents, and other investigational therapies.

Plasma allopregnanolone levels were markedly increased during pseudopregnancy (peak level, 55.1 vs. control diestrous level, 9.3 ng/mL) and were reduced by 86% 24 h after finasteride treatment (6.4 ng/mL). Progesterone levels were unaffected by finasteride. After finasteride-induced withdrawal, rats showed increased susceptibility to PTZ seizures. There was a significant increase in the number of animals exhibiting clonic seizures when challenged with subcutaneous PTZ (60 mg/kg) compared with control pseudopregnant animals not undergoing withdrawal and nonpseudopregnant diestrous females. The CD50 (50% convulsant dose) was 46 mg/kg, compared with 73 mg/kg in nonwithdrawn pseudopregnant animals and 60 mg/kg in diestrous controls. The threshold doses for induction of various seizure signs, measured by constant intravenous infusion of PTZ, were reduced by 30-35% in neurosteroid-withdrawing animals compared with control diestrous females. No change in threshold was observed in pseudopregnant rats treated from days 7 to 11 with finasteride, demonstrating that high levels of progesterone alone do not alter seizure reactivity.

(1) We confirmed that castration significantly suppressed bladder carcinogenesis. (2) Finasteride or flutamide administration as monotherapy had no effect on the results; however, the dosages of these drugs may have been too low, so we are planning a study with higher doses. (3) Conversely, the LH-RH agonist depot significantly promoted bladder carcinogenesis, we believe that the high levels of testosterone immediately after the administration were responsible for this promotion. (4) Simultaneous administration of flutamide suppressed this LH-RH induced promotion of carcinogenesis.

Prospective randomized, single-blinded study.

5-α Reductase inhibitor can reduce the volume of benign prostatic hyperplasia by lowering benign prostatic hyperplasia level and consequently inducing epithelial cells apoptosis. The present study investigated whether autophagy and apoptosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells are influenced by low benign prostatic hyperplasia levels.

Previous studies have shown that male BRCA mutation carriers stand at increased risk of developing prostate cancer and have concerns about developing cancer. Genetic counseling practitioners often discuss strategies for reducing the risk of cancer for patients at high risk due to their genetic background. Addressing modifiable health habits is one such strategy. Unfortunately, modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer have only been documented in the general population and have not yet been studied in the BRCA carrier subpopulation. Therefore, this study aimed to identify modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer in BRCA carriers. We examined prostate cancer risk factors in 74 men who were part of families with a BRCA mutation. This study examined nine dichotomous variables including: exercise, history of vasectomy, smoking history, alcohol use, finasteride use, statin use, aspirin use, coffee use, and vitamin use. The survey was sent to all cases of prostate cancer in the Hereditary Cancer Center Database at Creighton University with a known BRCA status. This study confirmed the protective benefits of daily aspirin use, which have been observed in previous studies of the general population, and suggests its benefit in BRCA carriers. Protective benefits from regular vigorous exercise and daily coffee use trended towards significance, but neither factor withstood the Bonferroni Correction for multiple comparisons.

Finasteride, an orally active type II 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha R) inhibitor, blocks conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The utility of finasteride in effectively managing benign prostatic hyperplasia has been documented. Use of the drug results in reduced prostate volume and serum levels. Patients receiving finasteride should be monitored with periodic digital-rectal examination (DRE) and serum PSA measurement. Patients with a sustained increase in serum PSA or an abnormal DRE require additional evaluation. There is no evidence that use of finasteride has an adverse effect on prostate cancer detection, if the drug's effect on serum PSA is recognized and accounted for.

In the UK, challenges for the future management of symptomatic BPH will be the increased number of patients, further enhancement of efficient co-operation between PCGs and urologists and evaluation of most appropriate management of this condition from a disease progression and cost-effectiveness point of view. Copyrightz1999S. KargerAG,Basel