High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Nicotinamide and its metabolite N-methylnicotinamide increase skin vascular permeability in rats.


To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of bimatoprost (Lumigan, Allergan, Inc.) when used as a replacement for latanoprost (Xalatan, Pharmacia) in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

To evaluate long-term patient satisfaction, usage patterns, and safety of bimatoprost 0.03% in clinical practice.

In this randomized, masked-observer, 6-month clinical trial, patients with primary open-angle, pseudophakic, or aphakic glaucoma were treated once daily with bimatoprost (n = 16), latanoprost (n = 15), or travoprost (n = 17) or twice daily with unoprostone (n = 16) or lubricant drops (control group) (n = 16). Blood-aqueous barrier status, which was assessed using a laser flare meter; intraocular pressure; the occurrence of angiographic cystoid macular edema; and conjunctival hyperemia were evaluated.

Keywords were searched in major literature databases to identify relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of PGAs for ophthalmic use. The study quality of RCTs was assessed using the Jadad scale. Outcomes assessed included reduction in IOP in individual patients, adverse events (AEs) and withdrawals due to AEs.

To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of periocular pigmentation with latanoprost versus bimatoprost.

Serial clinical examination of three patients was performed. In each of the three reported patients, alteration of eyelid appearance with deepening of the lid sulcus was evident as the result of topical bimatoprost therapy.

Both drugs lowered IOP effectively but bimatoprost showed a greater reduction in the mean IOP than did travoprost at 12 weeks and both are safe for ocular use.

Japan Association of Health Service and Alcon Japan. Ltd.

Thirty eyes of 15 New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to 1 of 6 treatment groups: artificial tears (Refresh Tears, carboxymethyl cellulose 0.5%) BID, brimonidine Purite 0.15% BID, bimatoprost 0.03% QD, dorzolamide 2% BID, timolol maleate 0.5% BID, or latanoprost 0.005% QD for 30 days. Corneal damage was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and graded on a standard scale by a masked observer. Conjunctival inflammation was evaluated with light microscopy, and inflammatory cells were counted in the epithelium and superficial and deep stroma by a masked observer according to a standard protocol.

Altered ocular perfusion plays a role in the pathophysiology of normal tension glaucoma. Prostaglandin-like substances are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. Less data are available regarding the influence of these compounds on ocular perfusion. In the present study the effects of bimatoprost, which has recently been shown to increase the vascular tone of ciliary arteries in vitro, on the blood flow velocity are investigated.

Only studies involving latanoprost were analyzed because of the low number of studies meeting the inclusion criteria for bimatoprost and travoprost. We found 29 and 13 studies that provided 1- and 3-month data, respectively, for analysis. The mean baseline IOPs in the 3 groups (parent company, competing company, nonindustry) were not significantly different (p = 0.47). The mean IOP at 1 (p = 0.72) and 3 months (p = 0.59) and the change in IOP from baseline (p = 0.83 and 0.90, respectively) were not significantly different in the 3 groups. A random-effects metaregression controlling for the covariates of blinding, naïveté to PGAs, and baseline IOP < 24 mm Hg or ≥ 24 mm Hg did not change the findings.

Significantly more bimatoprost-treated subjects had at least a one-grade improvement in GEA score from baseline to month 4 compared with vehicle in study 1 (77.3 vs 17.6%; P<0.001) and study 2 (88.9 vs 27.8%; P<0.001). Bimatoprost-treated subjects had significantly greater increases in eyelash length, thickness, and darkness at the primary time point (month 4 in both studies; all P<0.001, study 1; P≤0.04, study 2). The bimatoprost group showed greater subject satisfaction in both studies. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. Ophthalmic examination showed slightly greater mean reductions in intraocular pressure (IOP) with bimatoprost than with vehicle, and the reductions were within the normal range for daily IOP fluctuations.

This prospective clinical study included 35 patients who had been receiving latanoprost (n=12), travoprost (n=12), or bimatoprost (n=11) for POAG. Nepafenac 0.1% and placebo drops were administered to the right and left eyes of patients, respectively, 3 times a day for 7 days. IOP measurements were taken at 9:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 4:00 PM at baseline and all consecutive visits. The visits were scheduled on days 1 and 7 during treatment and 1 and 7 days after discontinuation of the treatment.

To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of bimatoprost (Lumigan, Allergan, Inc.) when used as a replacement for latanoprost (Xalatan, Pharmacia) in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

No statistically significant difference in intraocular pressure (IOP) was observed after switching to tafluprost. Mean IOP at baseline was 20.4 mmHg (SD2.2) and after 4 weeks 19.9 mmHg (SD2.6), (P>.05). The mean questionnaire score significantly decreased from 9.7 (SD3.7) at baseline to 5.4 (SD2.7) after one month (P<.001). No significant differences in tear clearance, Schirmer or TFI were found (P>.05). At baseline, tear clearance=0.13 (SD0.07), Schirmer=10.7 mm (SD6) and TFI=80 (48-156). After 4 weeks, tear clearance=0.1(SD0.07), Schirmer=9.5 mm (3.9) and TFI=104 (48-216). A significant association between questionnaire score and tear clearance after 4 weeks was observed (Spearman coefficient=0.62; P=.014).