High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Organic micropollutant removal in a full-scale surface flow constructed wetland fed with secondary effluent.


Of 24,825 eligible patients, 20,726 were followed during a 6-month period. Among these, subjects for analysis included those with systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) <90 mmHg; patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were excluded. A total of 15,846 patients were analysed. Among the various complications, hypercholesterolemia was the most frequent concomitant cardiovascular (CV) risk factor (48.1%), followed by obesity (16.3%). Associated clinical conditions were cerebrovascular diseases (9.6%), ischemic heart disease (7.9%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (4.6%). Total numbers of patients exhibiting any type of complications were 62% (≤64 years old), 69% (65-74 years old) and 67% (≥75 years old) (stratification of age). Mean SBP/DBP measurements (mm Hg) were 156/78 at the start, 140/72 at 1 month and 134/72 at 6 months. Blood pressure (BP) reductions associated with various diseases were similar among patients. Laboratory data including serum levels of total cholesterol, uric acid, hemoglobin A1c and serum potassium did not change during the study. Adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension and considerable reductions in BP (>30 mmHg SBP) were rare.

The prevalence of hyperuricacidemia in EH patients was 25.83% (279/1080). Body mass index (BMI) and creatinine were significantly higher while creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation was significantly lower in EH patients with hyperuricacidemia than EH patients without hyperuricacidemia (all P < 0.05). Similar antihypertensive effects were observed in EH patients treated with thiazide diuretics (n = 200), losartan (n = 324) or losartan + hydrochlorothiazide (Hyzaar, n = 476) and SBP was lower than 140 mm Hg in 69.40% and DBP was less than 90 mmHg in 85.30% EH patients 6 weeks after antihypertensive treatments. SUA was significantly increased (43.81 micromol/L +/- 71.79 micromol/L) low dose diuretics group (P < 0.01 vs. pretreatment), significantly reduced (44.96 micromol/L +/- 90.63 micromol/L) in losartan group (P < 0.0001 vs. pretreatment) and remained unchanged in Hyzaar group (7.46 +/- 84.72 micromol/L, P > 0.05 vs. pretreatment). Serum potassium was significantly decreased (0.30 +/- 0.44 mmol/L) in diuretic group (P < 0.01 vs. pretreatment) and remained unchanged in losartan group (+0.06 +/- 0.43 mmol/L) and Hyzaar group (-0.04 +/- 0.44 mmol/L, all P > 0.05 vs. pretreatment).

More frequent RF in hypertensive patients are the following: high blood cholesterol (86.7%), left ventricular hypertrophy (53.2%), familial history of AH (74.2%). A combination of three and two RF occurs in 49.1 and 37% hypertensive patients, respectively. A 6-month treatment with Hyzaar lowered systolic blood pressure by 28.4 mm Hg and diastolic one by 15.4 mm Hg. The target blood pressure was achieved in 83.5%. Real clinical practice showed that administration of a target Hyzaar dose for 6 months leads to a 6.5% regress of left ventricular hypertrophy, an 11% decrease of total cholesterol, a 4% decrease of glucose and a 8.9% decrease of uric acid.

Hypertension management guidelines recommend titrating antihypertensive drugs stepwise every 4-6 weeks.We compared efficacy and safety of early versus late titration after 10 weeks' treatment with irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide. Hypertensive patients uncontrolled on monotherapy were randomized into two groups. In the early titration group (E), patients received irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 150/12.5 mg for 2 weeks; uncontrolled patients were up-titrated to 300/25 mg at weeks 2 and 6. In the late titration group (L), patients received 150/12.5 mg for 6 weeks; uncontrolled patients were up-titrated to 300/25 mg at week 6 (W6). The change of mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from baseline to week 10 (W10) were studied using a covariance analysis model. The percentage of controlled patients at W10 was compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Of 833 patients enrolled from 14 countries, the intent-to-treat (ITT) population included 795 (mean age 58 +/- 12 years, female 60%, obesity 38%, diabetes 22%). AtW6, mean SBP decrease was: E - 28.8 mmHg vs L - 26.3 mmHg (p = 0.02). At W10, there was similar mean SBP decrease: E - 29.5 mmHg vs L- 31.0 mmHg (p = 0.14). The control rate at W10 was 58% (E) and 64% (L), p = 0.06. Serious adverse events were more frequent in E (2.5% vs 0.7%, p= 0.044). Both early and late titration regimens provide similar BP decrease and control rate.

To investigate the association of adherence to antihypertensive drug regimens and BP control using data from the Combination Pill of Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide for Improvement of Medication Compliance Trial (COMFORT) study.

Losartan alone reduces both office and ABPM readings. The observed changes in office-recorded sitting DBP suggest that losartan is less effective than amlodipine or the combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide, but ABPM did not confirm this difference. Perhaps changes in office readings measure different attributes of a drug than does ABPM.