High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Oxidant injury alters barrier function of ferret tracheal epithelium.


Many traditional Indian medicinal plants which contain large quantity of a secoiridoid, swertiamarin are being used to relieve pain. Iridoids present in a wide variety of medicinal plants possess a large number of medicinal properties. In the present study in vivo antinociceptive activity of swertiamarin isolated from E. axillare was carried out using three different methods in mice. In the hot plate method, a significant increase in the latency period was observed for the treatment with swertiamarin at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw after 30 and 45 min. The percent protection observed after 45 min was 109.42, 147.42 and 157.14, respectively, for the standard paracetamol and swertiamarin at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw treatments. A significant increase in the tail withdrawal reflex was observed for the swertiamarin treatment at both the doses with percent protections of 150 and 200, respectively. In both these methods, swertiamarin produced potent activity than that of standard paracetamol. In the acetic acid induced writhing, swertiamarin at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw reduced the number of writhes significantly. Dose dependent results were observed in all the three methods and among the two doses, swertiamarin at 200 mg/kg bw showed potent activity. These results prove that swertiamarin possess both peripheral and central antinociceptive activity.

AAP enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in cisplatin-resistant BT16 cells but not cisplatin-sensitive BT12 cells. Baseline GSH levels were elevated in BT16 cells compared to BT12 cells, and AAP decreased GSH to a greater magnitude in BT16 cells than BT12 cells. Unlike BT12 cells, BT16 cells did not have elevated peroxide levels upon treatment with cisplatin alone, but did have elevated levels when treated with AAP + cisplatin. Both cell lines had markedly increased mitochondrial injury when treated with AAP + cisplatin relative to either drug treatment alone. The enhanced toxic effects were partially reversed with concurrent administration of NAC.

To compare the efficacy of up to 3 epidural butorphanol plus corticosteroid with corticosteroid alone for sciatica due to herniated nucleus pulposus.

Naringenin is a natural flavonoid aglycone of naringin that has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity. This study was designed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of naringenin against acetaminophen (250 mg kg(-1), sc) in metallothionein (MT)-null mice. 42 SPF MT-knockout mice were used. Naringenin (200, 400, and 800 mg kg(-1), ig) was administered for 4 days before exposure to acetaminophen (250 mg kg(-1), sc). Liver injury was measured by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as liver malondialdehyde (MDA). The glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) was also assessed. The evidence of liver injury induced by acetaminophen included not only a significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST, LDH and liver MDA, and also a significant decrease in GSH/GSSG. Pretreatment of mice with naringenin at 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) reversed the altered parameters. Such reversal effects were dose-dependent: ALT decreased 78.62% and 98.03%, AST decreased 88.35% and 92.64%, LDH decreased 76.54% and 81.63%, MDA decreased 48.59% and 66.27% at a dose of 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) respectively; GSH/GSSG increased 22.57% and 16.93% at a dose of 400 and 800 mg kg(-1) respectively. Histopathological observation findings were also consistent with these effects. Together, this study suggests that naringenin can potentially reverse the hepatotoxic damage of acetaminophen intoxication in MT-null mice.

The internal standard was APAP-D4 for all analytes. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed-phase Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography HSS T3 column with a runtime of only 4.5 minutes per injected sample. Gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate, formic acid in Milli-Q ultrapure water or in methanol at flow rate of 0.4 mL/minute.

Data on patients undergoing adrenalectomy over a 2-year period from 2010 were reviewed. Patients undergoing open adrenalectomy, bilateral adrenal surgery, or paraganglioma resection were excluded. The LA and RA patients were compared according to their operative time, time to first oral intake, complications, analgesic requirements, and length of hospital stay. Further analysis was performed on patients matched for all patient and disease-related criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ (2) test and the Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate.

The study aims to investigate the prevalence of off-label prescribing in the general paediatric ward at a major teaching hospital in Tasmania, Australia.

The calibration of the rule was reasonable in the new sample with predictions of recovery typically within 5-10% of observed recovery. Discriminative performance of the rule was poor to moderate and similar to that found in the development sample.