High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Polymicrobial versus monomicrobial keratitis: a retrospective comparative study.


To study the MFX-RMP interaction in patients receiving MFX with or without RMP as part of their anti-tuberculosis treatment regimen.

s: To develop and validate a patient-based outcome measure to evaluate symptoms in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

The susceptibility and serotypes of 211 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from 12 Spanish hospitals in December 2003 were studied. Susceptibility tests for eight antibiotics were carried out by E-test, and the serotype classification was carried out using pneumococcus antiserum from the Copenhagen Statens Serum Institute. Overall, the most frequent serotypes were 19 (12.2%); 6 (10.7%); 23 (10.2%); 3 (8.1%); 9 (6.6%); 14 (6.1%); and 29 (5.1%). In blood, the most frequent were 19 (16.6%) and 14 (11.9%), and 8.6% were nontypable. Under NCCLS (M7-A5) criteria, 55.6% of the strains were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < or =0.06 mg/l) and 7.9% showed high resistance (MIC > or =2 mg/l). Susceptibility to other antibiotics was 98% to moxifloxacin; 97.1% to levofloxacin; 94.6% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; 71.2% to cefuroxime; 84.4% to ceftriaxone; and 63.1% to clarithromycin and azithromycin. Only 13.3% of the strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics tested. The greatest percentage of strains resistant to other antibiotics was found among the strains resistant to penicillin. Nine resistant phenotypes were detected.

Microorganisms were recovered from 1665 (77%) of the 2170 ulcers. Bacterial isolates accounted for 1205 of the organisms isolated. The most common bacterial pathogens isolated were various species of Staphylococcus, representing 777 (64.5%), followed by Staphylococcus spp. (148; 12.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (117; 9.7%). High percentages of Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to gatifloxacin (>94%), followed by ofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Almost 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Sixty-two (44%) of 140 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 79 (14.8%) of 534 isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 33 (14%) of 234 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to three or more antibiotics.

Adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were randomized to receive either rifapentine (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) plus moxifloxacin (investigational arm), or rifampin (approximately 10 mg/kg) plus ethambutol (control) daily for 8 weeks, along with isoniazid and pyrazinamide. The primary endpoint was sputum culture status at completion of 8 weeks of treatment.

A surveillance study was performed in four Singapore public hospitals from 2006 to 2008 to determine the correlation between antibiotic prescription and Gram-negative bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Targeted organisms included ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Antibiotic prescription data were collated in the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) format, while antibiotic resistance was expressed as incidence density adjusted for total inpatient-days every quarter. Individual trends were determined by linear regression, while possible associations between antibiotic prescription and resistance were evaluated via cross-correlation analysis. Results over 3 years indicated significantly rising incidence densities of ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (blood isolates only). Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae rates declined. The prescription rates of piperacillin-tazobactam, ertapenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin increased significantly, while imipenem and moxifloxacin prescription decreased. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrated possible associations between prescription of fluoroquinolones and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (R(2) = 0.46), fluoroquinolones and ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli (R(2) = 0.47), and carbapenems and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (R(2) = 0.48), all at zero time lag. Changes in meropenem prescription were associated with a similar trend in imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter blood isolates after a 3-month time lag. No correlation was found between cephalosporin use and resistance. In conclusion, our data demonstrated correlation between prescription of and Gram-negative bacterial resistance to several, but not all, key antimicrobial agents in Singapore hospitals. In areas where Gram-negative bacterial resistance is endemic and prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents is high, factors other than antimicrobial usage may be equally important in maintaining high resistance rates.

We identified all hospital-acquired isolates from 14 hospitals in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente health care delivery system between 1998 and 2003 and determined their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. For each facility, we determined the number of days of fluoroquinolone use per 1000 patient-days, by calendar quarter. We used a logistic regression model to analyze the data, with susceptibility status as the outcome variable. Hospital-level rates of use of the 3 fluoroquinolones were the predictors of interest; we adjusted for year, for use of nonquinolone antimicrobials, and for patient variables, including the number of days spent in the hospital in the prior year and fluoroquinolone use in the prior year. The model tested whether isolates from those facilities with higher rates of use of antimicrobials were more likely to be nonsusceptible to ciprofloxacin.