High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Protection of human muscle acetylcholinesterase from soman by pyridostigmine bromide.


Somatic symptoms of depression such as fatigue create a diagnostic dilemma when assessing an older patient with medical comorbidities, since chronic medical illnesses may produce similar symptoms. Alternatively, somatic symptoms attributed to medical illness may actually be caused by depression. These analyses were designed to determine if somatic symptoms in older patients are more strongly associated with chronic physical problems or with depression.

A prospective study of response to treatment with nortriptyline was carried out in a group of 14 inpatients with mixed symptoms of depression and dementia. Platelet membrane fluidity, as reflected by the fluorescence anisotropy of DPH labeled membranes, was determined for all 14 drug-free subjects prior to treatment by staff who were blind to clinical and demographic data. Patients who exhibited worsening of their cognitive impairment exhibited "increased" platelet membrane fluidity, an abnormally found in approximately 50% of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

The National Center for Biotechnology's PubMed database was searched for relevant pharmacogenetic-based dosing guidelines, as well as papers discussing drug use, and pharmacogenetics in the elderly. Google Scholar was also searched for the related documents.

Management of MdDS as vestibular migraine can improve patients' symptoms and increase the QOL. Nearly all the patients suffering from MdDS had a personal or family history of migraine headaches or had signs or symptoms suggestive of atypical migraine.

: Netherlands Trial Register (ISRCTN 64481813).

Pressure-sensitive adhesives are viscoelastic polymers used in the formulation of transdermal patches that allow attachment of a patch onto the skin. Established criteria exist that correlate viscoelastic parameters with adhesive performance. In this study, fulfillment of the adhesive performance criteria was examined using two silicone adhesives with different tack properties. The viscoelastic parameters of high and low tack silicone adhesives (BIO-PSA High Tack 7-4302 and BIO-PSA Low Tack 7-4102) were determined and compared with the criteria described by Chu and Dahlquist. Drug-in-adhesive layers were prepared using the high tack adhesive combined with nortriptyline HCl or paracetamol. The effect of drug addition on the viscoelastic properties of the adhesive was examined. The high tack adhesive showed congruence with the established criteria although with a modified range of viscoelastic moduli to that described by Chu. Examination of the low tack adhesive showed that it did not possess the appropriate viscoelastic properties for bonding onto the skin. The addition of the drugs into the high tack adhesive caused a concentration-dependent increase in its cohesive strength. This effect was independent of the physicochemical properties of the drugs tested.

Of the 195 depressed patients, 62 had a pattern of reversed diurnal variation (i.e. worse in the evening). Those with reversed diurnal variation had a poorer response to a serotonergic anti-depressant, were less likely to have bipolar II disorder, had a higher tryptophan: large neutral amino acid ratio and had different allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter.

A lack of quality information precludes us from drawing definite conclusions or recommendations on the use of antidepressants in acute AN. Future studies testing safer and more tolerable antidepressants in larger, well designed trials are needed to provide guidance for clinical practice.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have been used successfully in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained chest pain. Little information is available regarding their use in other functional gastrointestinal disorders. Clinical charts were analyzed from 37 outpatients (mean age 45 +/- 2 years, 25 females/12 males) with chronic nausea and vomiting that could not be explained by any conventional organic disorder (mean duration of symptoms 28 +/- 8 months). Twenty-one (57%) had chronic persistent symptoms; 16 (43%) had intermittent relapsing symptoms; 13 (35%) also had pain as a dominant complaint. Each patient had been treated with TCAs specifically for the gastrointestinal symptoms (amitriptyline, desipramine, nortriptyline, doxepin, or imipramine), and the subject group was followed for 5.4 +/- 1.1 months. Response (at least moderate symptom reduction using a priori chart rating criteria) occurred in 31 patients (84%), and complete symptom remission occurred in 19 (51%)--in 41% with the first TCA trial. Dose at response averaged 50 mg/day, and outcome was unrelated to TCA used. Logistic regression analysis revealed that pain dominance interfered with remission (P = 0.03), but other clinical characteristics were not predictive of outcome. This uncontrolled clinical experience indicates that the open-label response rate of functional nausea and vomiting to low dosages of TCAs resembles that noted in irritable bowel syndrome. TCAs should be studied in controlled fashion for this and related dyspeptic syndromes, as the success of other treatments is limited.