High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Pruritus and renal failure.


Study population consisted of sixty dentures wearers from those attending the Outpatient Department of Prosthodontics of the School of Dentistry, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of triphala and chlorhexidine. The swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total Candida counts were determined.

The antimicrobial action of triphala against mutans streptococci closely parallels that of chlorhexidine. It does not have the side effects commonly associated with chlorhexidine and is cost effective.

Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) on noise-stress induced alterations in the antioxidant status and on the cell-mediated immune response in Wistar strain male albino rats. Noise-stress employed in this study was 100 dB for 4 h/d/15 days and Triphala was used at a dose of 1 g/kg/b.w/48 days. Eight different groups of rats namely, non-immunized: control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala with noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. Sheep red blood cells (5 x 10(9) cells/ml) were used to immunize the animals. Biochemical indicators of oxidative stress namely lipid peroxidation, antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbic acid in plasma and tissues (thymus and spleen) and SOD, GPx and corticosterone level in plasma were estimated. Cell-mediated immune response namely foot pad thickness (FPT) and leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test were performed only in immunized groups. Results showed that noise-stress significantly increased the lipid peroxidation and corticosterone level with concomitant depletion of antioxidants in plasma and tissues of both non-immunized and immunized rats. Noise-stress significantly suppressed the cell-mediated immune response by decreased FPT with an enhanced LMI test. The supplementation with Triphala prevents the noise-stress induced changes in the antioxidant as well as cell-mediated immune response in rats. This study concludes that Triphala restores the noise-stress induced changes may be due to its antioxidant properties.

The activity of MMPs was significantly decreased with the use of the drugs. Triphala showed a 76.6% reduction of MMP-9 activity, whereas kamillosan showed a 46.36% reduction at a concentration of 1,500 microg/ml (crude extract) and doxycycline showed a 58.7% reduction at a concentration of 300 microg/ml (pure drug).

Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively. Water extracts of irradiated samples showed linearly increasing concentration of gallic acid (3.3 to 4.5 times), total phenolic contents (2.16 to 2.87 times), and antioxidant properties with increasing radiation dose up to 25 kGy. The increase could be attributed to easy release of active ingredients from their radiation degraded complex forms. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala.

Herbal products from Ayurveda were always in the forefront in providing leads to new drug discovery. Triphala, an ancient Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprises of equal portions of Amalaki, Bibhitaki and Haritaki and is used extensively for constipation, as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic, hypoglycemic and an anti-aging agent.

Our preclinical studies demonstrate that Triphala is effective in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in both cellular and in vivo model. Our data also suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of Triphala is mediated by the activation of ERK and p53 and shows potential for the treatment and/or prevention of human pancreatic cancer.

Arthritis was induced in Wistar albino rats by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the foot pad of right hind paw. Triphala (100 mg/kg b wt, i.p.) was administered from day 11 to 18 after the administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, glycoproteins, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation were determined in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. In addition, the inflammatory mediators were also measured in both the serum and the paw tissue of arthritic rats.

Mandura (Iron rust) is known by names lohkitta, malayas, ayomala, meaning waste of iron. Among different formulations prescribed for Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), in Ayurvedic classics Kshiramandura (Preparation of Iron rust in Milk) is one. Ancient authorities have given similar recipes of Mandura and these medicines are being successfully administered in the management of Peptic ulcer. In Parinamashoola (Peptic ulcer), Acharya Chakradatta mentioned Kshiramandura, as a formulation prepared by taking 384gms of Mandura Bhasma (Incinerated Iron rust), 3 Kg 73 gm of cow's urine and 768gms of cow's milk, boiled and administered in a dose of 500mg. To establish Physical and Chemical factors present in Mandura before and after purification and incineration, the preparation ofKshira mandura was attempted by adopting Quantitative and Qualitative methods. The drugwas identified by the qualities as described in the classics, viz., unctuous, heavy, hard and black in color and absence of hollow space. Mandura was heated in burning charcoal (600-800° c) and dipped in 5 liters of Cow's urine. This process was repeated 7 times, till the Mandura broke. This purified Mandura was then powdered and triturated with decoction ofTerminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis (Triphala kashaya). Thereafter pellets were prepared and dried. The pellets were then sealed in crucibles and heated 30 times in a special type of furnace with temperature of 1000°c (Gajaputa method) to incinerate Mandura and prepare its ash (Bhasma). Cow's urine and milk were added to this Mandura Bhasma and Kshiramandura was prepared. When analyzed it showed 68.3 5% Ferric oxide, 0.66%MgCO(3) and 1.32% CaCO(3).