High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules in Crohn's disease: a rare extra-intestinal manifestation.


Preliminary reports suggest that patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have evidence of human betaretrovirus infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether antiviral therapy impacts on the disease process.

HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 1.5 μg/mL (0.75-2.20 μg/mL) and 1.04 μg/mL (0.39-1.71 μg/mL), respectively (P < 0.001). At 1 week postpartum, 93% and 98% of the women had detectable nevirapine in plasma and breast milk, with a median (IQR) of 0.13 μg/mL (0.13-0.39 μg/mL) and 0.22 μg/mL (0.13-0.34 μg/mL), respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly higher HIV-1 RNA at 1, 4 and 6 weeks (all P < 0.05).

Lamivudine/zidovudine and Combivir have equivalent antiretroviral activity over 12 weeks. Adding abacavir to Combivir can be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients, including those harbouring virus with the M184V mutation.

The total number of prescriptions for antiretrovirals increased from 168,914 in 1991 to 2.0 million in 1998, and 3.0 million in 2005, a 16.7-fold increase over 15 years. The number of prescriptions for NRTIs reached 1.6 million in 2005. Prescriptions for PIs increased from 114 in 1995 to 932,176 in 2005, while the number of prescriptions for NNRTIs increased from 1,339 in 1996 to 401,272 in 2005. The total payment for antiretroviral drugs in the U.S. Medicaid Program increased from US$ 30.6 million in 1991 to US$ 1.6 billion in 2005, a 49.8-fold increase. In 2005, NRTIs as a class had the highest payment market share. These drugs alone accounted for US$ 787.9 million in Medicaid spending (50.8 percent of spending on antiretrovirals). Payment per prescription for each drug, with the exception of Agenerase, increased, at least somewhat, over time. The relatively expensive drugs in 2005 included Trizivir ($1040) and Combivir ($640), as well as Reyataz ($750), Lexiva ($700), Sustiva ($420), Viramune ($370), and Fuzeon ($1914).

In contrast to resource-rich countries, most HIV-infected patients in resource-limited countries receive treatment without virological monitoring. There are few long-term data, in this setting, on rates of viral suppression or switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy. The DART trial compared clinically driven monitoring (CDM) versus routine laboratory (CD4/haematology/biochemistry) and clinical monitoring (LCM) in HIV-infected adults initiating therapy. There was no virological monitoring in either study group during follow-up, but viral load was measured in Ugandan participants at trial closure. Two thousand three hundred and seventeen (2317) participants from this country initiated antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine/lamivudine plus tenofovir (n = 1717), abacavir (n = 300), or nevirapine (n = 300). Of 1896 (81.8%) participants who were alive and in follow-up at trial closure (median 5.1 years after therapy initiation), 1507 (79.5%) were on first-line and 389 (20.5%) on second-line antiretroviral therapy. The overall switch rate after the first year was 5.6 per 100 person-years; the rate was substantially higher in participants with low baseline CD4 counts (<50 cells/mm3). Among 1207 (80.1%) first-line participants with viral load measured, HIV RNA was <400 copies/ml in 963 (79.8%), 400-999 copies/ml in 37 (3.1%), 1,000-9,999 copies/ml in 110 (9.1%), and ≥10,000 copies/ml in 97 (8.0%). The proportion with HIV RNA <400 copies/ml was slightly lower (difference 7.1%, 95% CI 2.5 to 11.5%) in CDM (76.3%) than in LCM (83.4%). Among 252 (64.8%) second-line participants with viral load measured (median 2.3 years after switch), HIV RNA was <400 copies/ml in 226 (89.7%), with no difference between monitoring strategies. Low switch rates and high, sustained levels of viral suppression are achievable without viral load or CD4 count monitoring in the context of high-quality clinical care.

The findings of this study indicate the need for routine monitoring of lipids among HIV-infected patients.

There is a lack of standardized programs for HIV counselling and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the setting of sexual assault.

Dissolution testing has a very vital importance for a quality control test and prediction of the in vivo behavior of the oral dosage formulation. This requires the use of a powerful analytical method to get reliable, accurate and precise results for the dissolution experiments. In this context, new signal processing approaches, continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs) were improved for the simultaneous quantitative estimation and dissolution testing of lamivudine (LAM) and zidovudine (ZID) in a tablet dosage form. The CWT approaches are based on the application of the continuous wavelet functions to the absorption spectra-data vectors of LAM and ZID in the wavelet domain. After applying many wavelet functions, the families consisting of Mexican hat wavelet with the scaling factor a=256, Symlets wavelet with the scaling factor a=512 and the order of 5 and Daubechies wavelet at the scale factor a=450 and the order of 10 were found to be suitable for the quantitative determination of the mentioned drugs. These wavelet applications were named as mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT methods. Calibration graphs for LAM and ZID in the working range of 2.0-50.0 µg/mL and 2.0-60.0 µg/mL were obtained measuring the mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT amplitudes at the wavelength points corresponding to zero crossing points. The validity and applicability of the improved mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT approaches was carried out by the analysis of the synthetic mixtures containing the analyzed drugs. Simultaneous determination of LAM and ZID in tablets was accomplished by the proposed CWT methods and their dissolution profiles were graphically explored.