High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Reduced expression of TRIM21/Ro52 predicts poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with and without rheumatic disease.


Urogenital tuberculosis has not decreased in incidence like other forms of tuberculosis and this is not to be expected in the coming years. Following combined modern chemotherapy the chances of conversion and also clinical cure are increased. The patient's cooperation during a systematic triple drug therapy in adequate dosage is important. The possibility of ambulatory treatment will depend on the clinical findings and the patient's social situation. Physical and occupational therapy and early resocialization of the patient are important. Prolonged unemployment should be avoided. Urological care of the patient is particularly important in the early phases of the treatment.

Moxifloxacin (MXF) has in vitro and in vivo activity against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in experimental models. However, no data are available concerning its treatment effect in patients with MAC lung disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an MXF-containing regimen for the treatment of refractory MAC lung disease. Patients with MAC lung disease who were diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2011 were identified from our hospital database. We identified 41 patients who received MXF for ≥ 4 weeks for the treatment of refractory MAC lung disease. A total of 41 patients were treated with an MXF-containing regimen because of a persistent positive culture after at least 6 months of clarithromycin-based standardized antibiotic therapy. The median duration of antibiotic therapy before MXF administration was 410 days (interquartile range [IQR], 324 to 683 days). All patients had culture-positive sputum when MXF treatment was initiated. The median duration of MXF administration was 332 days (IQR, 146 to 547 days). The overall treatment success rate was 29% (12/41), and the median time to sputum conversion was 91 days (IQR, 45 to 190 days). A positive sputum acid-fast-bacillus smear at the start of treatment with MXF-containing regimens was an independent predictor of an unfavorable microbiological response. Our results indicate that MXF may improve treatment outcomes in about one-third of patients with persistently culture-positive MAC lung disease who fail to respond to clarithromycin-based standardized antibiotic treatment. Prospective studies are required to assess the clinical efficacy of MXF treatment for refractory MAC lung disease.

A chronic, painless sore developed over a 2-month period on the left calf of a Canadian man traveling for 8 months in Africa. A presumptive diagnosis of a Mycobacterium spp. infection was made despite initially negative biopsy and culture results, after failure of several courses of anti-bacterial antibiotics. Mycobacterium ulcerans was eventually isolated and the lesion progressed despite treatment with multiple anti-mycobacterial agents. The lesion finally responded to wide and repeated excision, aggressive treatment with anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, and split-thickness skin grafting. The isolation and treatment of this unusual organism are discussed.

To design oral short-course regimens for the treatment of sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis that could be more easily implemented under field conditions.

TB was classified as pulmonary in 18/26 (69%), nodal in 3/26 (11%) TB cases, while the remaining 5/26 cases included disseminated, pleural, renal, ovarian, and vertebral TB localization (1 case each). ATT following LT consisted mainly of isoniazid or rifampin (RIF)-sparing regimens and included primarily fluoroquinolones and ethambutol. Rejection episodes and liver toxicity were reported in 19% and 8% of patients respectively. Graft rejection was more frequent among patients treated with RIF-containing regimens (P<.001). Mortality rate was 15% after a median follow up of 12 months. In only one case was death attributed to uncontrolled TB infection.

Mycobacterium kansasii infection is one of the most common causes of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in world. However, little is known about its background characteristics or drug sensitivity in nonendemic areas.

In the base-case, moxifloxacin monotherapy was the lowest cost strategy, but moxifloxacin/ethambutol was cost-effective at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21,252 per quality-adjusted life-year. Both pyrazinamide-containing regimens were dominated due to their toxicity. A hypothetical regimen of low toxicity and even modest efficacy was cost-effective compared to "no treatment."

A regional hospital in Hong Kong examined the correlation between plasma concentrations of rifampicin, pyrazinamide, isoniazid and its metabolite hydrazine and age, inclusion of rifampicin in the treatment regimen, adverse drug reactions and other clinical parameters. One hundred eighty subjects with tuberculosis were admitted consecutively to the medical wards of the Prince of Wales Hospital over a one and a half year period. Elderly patients > 65 years were randomized into one of two treatments with and without rifampicin in addition to isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol; younger patients received all four drugs. Plasma antituberculous drug concentrations were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Elderly patients taking rifampicin had a higher mean steady-state concentration of isoniazid, together with a higher incidence of adverse effects compared with those not taking rifampicin. No age related differences were observed for the other drugs. For the whole group, higher mean concentrations of hydrazine, rifampicin and pyrazinamide were associated with a higher incidence of adverse effects and the presence of coexisting diseases. It is concluded that in sick elderly patients with coexisting diseases, use of rifampicin in the antituberculous regimen should be accompanied by close monitoring for side effects, and that there may be an indication for use of lower dosages of antituberculous drugs in such patients.