High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Reduction in infarct size and enhanced recovery of systolic function after coronary thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator combined with beta-adrenergic blockade with metoprolol.


Chronic urticaria (CU) is a common skin condition. It is frequently a disabling disease due to the persistency of clinical symptoms, the unpredictable course and negative influence on the quality of life.

C(max), t(max), t((1/2)) and AUC(24h).

Eighteen healthy male and female Japanese volunteers aged 20-53 years were randomized to receive fexofenadine HCl 60 mg twice daily, loratadine 10 mg once daily or placebo in a 1-day, three-period, double-blind, crossover study. For each treatment, the wheal and flare response to 100 mg/mL histamine was assessed at baseline and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours post-dose. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis.

A single dose of 5 mg levocetirizine produced more consistent and greater inhibitory effects on histamine-induced wheal, flare and itch than did 5 mg desloratadine. The difference is suggested to reflect the basic pharmacokinetics of the two drugs.

The peak plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were 7.78 and 5.09 ng/mL, respectively, observed 1.17 and 2.33 hours after administration of loratadine; the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve to the last quantifiable time point for loratadine and desloratadine were 16.7 and 87.2 ng x h/mL, respectively. Single and multiple doses were well tolerated, with no adverse events occurring with greater frequency after multiple doses of loratadine than after placebo. Electrocardiographic parameters were not altered by loratadine compared with placebo. There were no clinically meaningful changes in other tolerability assessments.

Olopatadine hydrochloride is one of the second-generation nonsedating antihistamines that are used for treating allergic disorders such as urticaria, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. We examined the inhibitory effects of this drug on the flare and wheal responses induced by histamine iontophoresis at 30, 60, and 90 min after oral administration in a double-blind, cross-over, and placebo-controlled study. Olopatadine hydrochloride significantly inhibited the histamine-induced flare and wheal responses as early as 60 min after oral administration when compared with placebo. Significant inihibitory effects of olopatadine hydrochloride on the itch responses were seen at 90 min after administration. Thus, olopatadine hydrochloride exhibited a very rapid and potent antihistamine effect on the histamine-induced skin responses.

Safety and efficacy of desloratadine and montelukast each were assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients with SAR and symptoms of asthma, who were assigned randomly to once-daily treatment with desloratadine 5 mg, montelukast 10 mg, or placebo for 4 weeks. Change from baseline of AM/PM reflective total asthma symptom severity scores (TASS), FEV(1), individual asthma symptom scores, and beta(2)-agonist usage were assessed.

Mast cell histamine (HA) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) account for most of the early phase bronchospasm in asthma. However, activation of the smooth muscle CysLT1-receptor plays a major role in asthmatic bronchospasms. CysLT-receptor antagonists or CysLT-synthesis inhibitors are efficacious in asthma but do not completely abolish asthmatic bronchospasms. A recent clinical study showed that combined antagonists loratadine (H1) and zafirlukast (CysLT1) were more effective against allergic bronchospasms than either drug alone. We examined the combined efficacy of H1- and CysLT1-receptor antagonists in allergic human bronchus. The H1- and CysLT1-receptor antagonists chlorpheniramine (CTM; 1 microM) and MK-571 (0.03 microM), were tested alone and in combination, against anti-human IgE antibody (Ab)-induced contractions of passively sensitized isolated human bronchus. Ab-induced allergic contractions were reduced 15% and 36% by CTM (1 microM) and MK-571 (0.03 microM), respectively. Combined CTM (1 microM) and MK-571 (0.03 microM) significantly inhibited the Ab response by 87%. Mechanistic investigations in isolated human bronchus and cultured human cord blood mast cells suggest that H1- and CysLT-receptor interactions likely occur at the airway smooth muscle level. CTM and MK-571 synergistically inhibited human allergic bronchospasm in the present in vitro model. The mechanism underlying this synergistic activity requires further investigation.

Seventy six Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, normal control (NC) group, AR model (AR) group, loratadine (LOA) group and 18β-GA group. All the mice in AR, LOA and 18β-GA groups were sensitized intraperitoneally with OVA and AL(OH), from day 1-14, then induced by intranasal administration with OVA from day 14-21, while the mice in NC group were sensitized with saline. The mice in both LOA and 18β-GA group were given LOA and 18β-GA once a day respectively from the 21 d, while the mice in AR and NC groups were administrated with saline. At the end of 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, the behavioral changes of mice were observed and recorded, the level of CCL11 mRNA was measured by RT-QPCR, and AQP1 expression was investiaged by SP staing. EOS in nasal mucosa was studied with the methods of HE staining.