High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Risk factors for the development of placebo adverse reactions in a multicenter clinical trial.

2017-05-13

Adult BPD patients in a hypomanic, manic or mixed episode were randomised to either oral risperdone followed by RLAI (n = 23) or an AAP (n = 25) for 15 months. Any mood stabilizers were continued. An independent clinician board declared any clinical events that occurred but the treatment assignment was concealed.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of prior antipsychotic exposure (PAE) on safety and tolerability outcomes in pediatric subjects receiving aripiprazole treatment.

Ten aripirazole (CAS 129722-12-9) derivatives were prepared and examined for dopamine receptor antagonist activity. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their elemental analyses and by IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectra. It was demonstrated that all the new compounds have dopamine receptor antagonist activity to a certain extent. Three compounds showed more potent activity than aripiprazole.

Deficits in working memory (WM) are a core symptom of schizophrenia patients and have been linked to dysfunctional prefrontal activation, which might be caused by a mesocortical hypodopaminergic state. Aripiprazole--a partial dopamine antagonist--is a novel antipsychotic, which increases frontal dopamine concentrations in preclinical studies. However, little is known about specific medication effects on the modulation of frontal activation during WM performance.

Ziprasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine extended-release, and aripiprazole were dominated by other comparators and removed from the comparative analysis. ICER for lurasidone versus risperidone was $25,884/relapse-related hospitalization avoided. At a $50,000 willingness-to-pay threshold, lurasidone has an 86.5% probability of being cost-effective, followed by a 7.2% probability for olanzapine, and 6.3% for risperidone. One-way sensitivity analysis showed the model is sensitive to lurasidone and generic risperidone hospitalization rates.

Our study confirmed an association between memory disorders and some drugs, such as benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants. However, other drugs, such as benzodiazepine-like hypnotics, newer anticonvulsants, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, isotretinoin and ciclosporin were significantly associated with memory disorders, although this was not described or poorly described in the literature. Taking account of the limits of this study in the FPVD (under-reporting, notoriety bias etc.), the case/noncase method allows assessment and detection of associations between exposure to drugs and a specific adverse drug reaction, such as memory disorders, and could thus generate signals and orientate us to further prospective studies to confirm such associations.

The main objectives in treating mania are to control dangerous behaviour, reduce suicide, produce appropriate acute sedation and shorten the episode of mood disturbance. Among different drugs, haloperidol has for many years been used in treating psychotic patients, but it has a troublesome side effect profile.

Data were extracted with the use of a pre-coded form.

In this review, the authors provided a qualitative synthesis and a critical perspective on the efficacy of aripiprazole in relapse prevention and craving in AUD. A systematic search was carried out through MEDLINE/Embase/PsycINFO/Cochrane Library from inception until September 2015, combining free terms and MESH headings for the topics of AUD and aripiprazole as following: (((Alcohol use Disorder) OR (Alcohol use)) AND aripiprazole).

There is preliminary evidence that the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, which is a partial agonist at D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptors and a potent antagonist at 5-HT(2A) receptors, may be useful as an augmentation strategy in treatment-resistant depression.

The development of new "atypical" antipsychotic agents, which are safer than classical neuroleptics and also active against the negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits caused by the illness, has produced a significant advancement in the treatment of schizophrenia. The atypical (or "second generation") antipsychotics have several therapeutical properties in common, however they can significantly differ with regard to clinical potency and side effects. The main features regarding pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacological interactions of the most important atypical antipsychotics, namely clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone, are treated herein. Several analytical methods available for the therapeutic drug monitoring of these drugs are also presented, as well as the novel formulations, which can notably improve the therapy of schizophrenia. Other very recent atypical agents, such as ziprasidone, aripiprazole, iloperidone, sertindole and zotepine will also be briefly described.

SGA, either alone or in combination with mood stabilizers, had superior efficacy in treating manic symptoms of mixed episodes compared to placebo (-0.41, 95% CI -0.53, -0.30; overall effect p<0.00001). SGA were equally effective for manic symptoms in mixed episodes and pure mania (p=0.99). SGA had superior efficacy in treating depressive symptoms of mixed episodes (-0.30, 95% CI -0.47, -0.13; p<0.001) compared to placebo in two trials reporting this information.