High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Sensitivity of some strains of the genus Epidermophyton to different antifungal agents.

2017-05-08

A retrospective review of clinic records over a two-year period identified pregnant patients treated with a single 1-g dose of azithromycin for chlamydial carriage. The side effects and subsequent chlamydial carriage (test of cure) were noted.

To investigate whether chloroquine enhances the effect of antibiotics against Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative organism of scrub typhus, we compared the effect of antibiotics in combination with chloroquine with the effect of antibiotics alone in vitro.

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms isolated from the nasopharynx of children who presented with acute otitis media (AOM) or otitis media that recurred after amoxicillin therapy. Nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 72 patients, 40 with AOM and 32 with recurrent otitis media (ROM), were analysed. Thirty-six potentially pathogenic organisms were recovered in 34 (85 %) of the children from the AOM group, and 42 were isolated from 29 (91 %) of the children from the ROM group. The organisms isolated were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 26), Haemophilus influenzae non-type b (n = 22), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 13), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 8) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9). Resistance to the eight antimicrobial agents used was found in 37 instances in the AOM group as compared to 99 instances in the ROM group (P < 0.005). The difference between AOM and ROM was significant with Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to amoxicillin (P < 0.005), to amoxicillin/clavulanate (P < 0.005), to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.01), to cefixime (P < 0.01) and to azithromycin (P < 0.01), and for H. influenzae resistance to amoxicillin (P < 0.025). These data illustrate the higher recovery rate of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae from the nasopharynx of children who had otitis media that recurred after amoxicillin therapy than those with AOM.

Azithromycin (AZ) is the first member of a class of macrolide azalides antibiotics called azolides. A simple and selective square-wave voltammetric (SWV) method has been developed for the determination of azithromycin in pure form, in pharmaceutical preparation and in biological samples. Determination of azithromycin was accomplished with hand-make carbon paste electrode (CPE) in oxidative screen mode. The counter and reference electrodes were a Pt wire and a Ag/AgCl, respectively. Various parameters that can influence the peak signal (effect of buffer, ionic strength, accumulation time, pH and the composition of the paste) have been scrutinized. The best results were obtained in acetonitrile-aqueous 1M sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer (pH 4.6) containing 0.1M KCl (1:9; v/v) using a 15% paraffin oil CPE. The limits of detection and quantification of the pure drug are 0.463 and 1.544ppb (with the correlation coefficient, r=0.9785and the standard deviation, S.D.=0.1 (n=5), for the accumulation time of 60s), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the drug in urine and two forms of pharmaceutical formulations. Recoveries were 99.2-100.5% with S.D.=0.1-and 0.8% (n=5).

A double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy men to determine the effect of coadministration of azithromycin on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of terfenadine. Administration of 500 mg azithromycin for 1 day and 250 mg on 4 subsequent days did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the pharmacologically active terfenadine carboxylate metabolite when 60 mg terfenadine was given twice daily for 12 days, starting 7 days before azithromycin administration. Terfenadine alone resulted in a 0.010 msec increase in the rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), but the incremental effects of azithromycin and placebo on QTc in volunteers receiving terfenadine were not statistically different. It is concluded that the potentially life-threatening disorders that have been attributed to a pharmacokinetic interaction between macrolide antibiotics and terfenadine are unlikely to take place in patients treated simultaneously with azithromycin and terfenadine.

In children and adolescents with CF uninfected with P. aeruginosa, treatment with azithromycin for 24 weeks did not result in improved pulmonary function.

On the basis of pharmacokinetic values, minimum inhibitory concentrations of Rhodococcus equi isolates, and drug concentrations in PELF and bronchoalveolar cells, a single daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg may be appropriate for treatment of R. equi infections in foals. Persistence of high azithromycin concentrations in PELF and bronchoalveolar cells 48 hours after discontinuation of administration suggests that after 5 daily doses, oral administration at 48-hour intervals may be adequate.

Interventions consisted of an investigation of every HCW encounter with any patient who was confirmed later to have pertussis from the time of hospital admission of the patient, use of azithromycin as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for exposed HCWs, performance of 21-day surveillance for cough illness, testing of symptomatic exposed HCWs for Bordetella pertussis, and enhanced preexposure education of HCWs.