High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Serotonin agents in the treatment of acquired brain injury.


Based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, we considered acute kidney injury (AKI) as an absolute increase in the serum creatinine (sCr) level of more than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl or 50%. The introduction of Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (UNGAL) has conferred earlier diagnosis of AKI. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, can suppress the production of some factors of inflammatory response and presumably prevent AKI. We examined the PTX on the development of AKI in cardiac surgery patients by measuring the levels of UNGAL.

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a distinct presentation of alcoholic liver disease arising in patients who have been drinking to excess for prolonged periods, which is characterised by jaundice and liver failure. Severe disease is associated with high short-term mortality. Prednisolone and pentoxifylline (PTX) are recommended in guidelines for treatment of severe AH, but trials supporting their use have given heterogeneous results and controversy persists about their benefit.

While the overall incidence of infection has remained constant at approximately 7/1000 livebirths, the last decade has witnessed a reduction in early onset infections and a relative increase in nosocomial sepsis, chiefly with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Immaturity of host defence mechanisms contributes to an increasing susceptibility to infection with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. In the past, efforts to enhance host defence have included the use of granulocyte infusions, fresh frozen plasma, exchange blood transfusions and immunoglobulin therapy. Current trials are investigating the use of agents which enhance endogenous defence mechanisms, such as, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factant and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and of pentoxifylline. In the meantime strict attention to handwashing and aseptic technique remain the best methods of preventing nosocomial sepsis.

Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals each: control I, control II, PTX, HLD, PTX-HLD. Substances were administered from the first to the 14th postoperative day. The necrotic area was measured on the seventh and 14th postoperative day; the animals were killed on the 14th day, when samples were collected for histologic and immunohistochemical examination.

Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats commonly complicated ARDS-like acute lung injury. Acute pancreatitis induced by caerulein in the circulating neutrophil-depleted rat by hydroxyrea or with the administration of SOD, CAT or Pentoxifylline, the wet lung weight, lung capillary endothelial permeability decrease significantly compared to the caerulein group (P < 0.05). There are no lung morphologic evidences of neutrophil sequestration, interstial edema, intralveolar hemorrhage that seen in caerulein infusion animals. But it has no effect against the development of acute pancreatitis. It suggested that neutrophil and neutrophil-derived oxygen radical are the important mediators of acute lung injury complicated by pancreatitis.

Pentoxifylline reduces circulating IL-6 and improves haemoglobin in non-inflammatory moderate to severe CKD. These changes are associated with changes in circulating transferrin saturation and ferritin, suggesting improved iron release. It is hypothesized that pentoxifylline improves iron disposition possibly through modulation of hepcidin.

The proximal tubule is an important site of TNF production during diabetes and PTF is an effective therapy for preventing the pathological changes accompanying early diabetic nephropathy.

The cutaneous symptoms that appear after radiation exposure are caused by a combination of inflammatory processes and alteration of cellular proliferation as a result of a specific pattern of transcriptionally activated proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. The symptoms follow a time course consisting of prodromal erythema, manifestation, chronic stage, and late stage; these symptoms are referred to as cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS). The time course depends on several factors such as the applied radiation dose, radiation quality, individual radiation sensitivity, extent of contamination and absorption, and volume of skin exposed. For diagnosis of CRS, the following procedures are used: 7.5 to 20 MHz B-scan sonography, thermography, capillary microscopy, profilometry, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, bone scintigraphy, and histology. Based on the results of previous experimental and clinical research, pharmacotherapy of CRS can include topical or systemic application of corticosteroids, gamma interferon, pentoxifylline and vitamin E, and superoxide dismutase. The treatment varies according to the stage of CRS. Due to the complexity of the clinical manifestations of radiation disease in most patients, interdisciplinary treatment at specialized centers is necessary. In most cases, dermatologists are asked to provide lifelong therapy and follow-up of the patients.