High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Statin Intolerance: A Literature Review and Management Strategies.


These results indicate that our transient and intensive pharmacological immunosuppression fails to improve AAV5-based liver gene transfer in non-human primates. The reasons include an incomplete restraint of humoral immune responses to viral capsids that interfere with repeated gene transfer in addition to an intriguing MMF-dependent drug-mediated interference with liver transgene expression.

It has been shown in adult kidney transplant recipients that a conversion from MMF to EC-MPS significantly reduced the GI related symptom burden. No such study exists on children with GI problems while receiving MMF therapy. Ten paediatric kidney transplant recipients (mean age 14.5 yr, s.d. 4.5) receiving triple immunosuppression (Cyclosporin A or Tacrolimus + MMF + Prednisolone) with severe GI symptoms were converted to an equimolar dose of EC-MPS. The GSRS was completed before and at four wk after the switch, and GFR was determined for a mean period of six months. Values were compared by the paired t-test. Mean GSRS improved significantly after the switch to EC-MPS in all but one patient, from 2.1 (s.d. 0.9) to 1.1 (s.d. 0.6). The differences could be found in all four subscales. Graft function did not change after conversion to EC-MPS. In children with moderate or severe GI symptoms while receiving MMF, conversion to EC-MPS led to significantly reduced GI symptoms.

Inhibition by tranilast of the cytokine-induced expression of eotaxin-1, TARC, and VCAM-1 in human corneal fibroblasts suggests that this drug might prove effective for treatment of the corneal manifestations of ocular allergic inflammation by targeting corneal fibroblasts directly.

The present study calculated the risk of developing subclinical progressive chronic/sclerosing allograft nephropathy (CAN) under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression according to genetic polymorphisms of cytokines and growth factors, and clinical events including delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

The present study compared the efficacy and safety of mizoribine (MZR) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in kidney transplantation. This multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Employed doses of study drug tailored to the immunosuppressive need. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (BPAR). The safety of the study drug was assessed using the incidences of adverse events, drug discontinuations, and abnormal laboratory results. The 7 (6.4%) BPARs above grade II were observed in the MZR group noninferior to the 2 (1.8%) in the MMF group (95% confidence interval, -0.007-0.097 > noninferiority limit [-0.2]). BPAR was significantly decreased in the MZR group after the dose change (17/41 [41.4%] vs 8/69 [11.6%]; P < .0001) and the incidence of BPAR was similar between the MZR and MMF groups after the dose change (P = .592). The uric acid level was significantly elevated in the MZR group (P = .002). In conclusion, the efficacy and safety of MZR were similar and statistically noninferior to MMF in combination therapy with tacrolimus.

Tacrolimus concentrations measured by the ACMIA method (n = 154) closely correlated with those measured by the MEIA method (r = 0.84). The Bland-Altman plot using concentration differences between the 2 methods and the average of the 2 methods showed no specific trends. The tacrolimus levels determined by both the MEIA method and the ACMIA method were not influenced by hematocrit levels, but the difference between the 2 methods (ACMIA - MEIA) tended to be larger in low hematocrit samples (P < .001).

The study results suggest that, in KTR, higher variability of tacrolimus trough level is associated with higher risk of acute rejection.

Leukoencephalopathy syndrome developed in 7 of 205 patients (3.9%) and in 4.7% of the 150 patients treated with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression after their living-donor liver transplantation. The underlying diseases were alcoholic cirrhosis in 3 cases, viral cirrhosis in 2, biliary atresia in 1, and Wilson disease in 1. Time to clinical onset after tacrolimus medication was 15.6 days (range, 6-30 days). The neurologic symptoms included headache, confusion, myoclonus, seizures, and visual disturbances. The mean serum trough level of tacrolimus at clinical onset was not very high (11.7 ng/mL [range, 6.0-14.2 ng/mL]). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in all cases showed diffuse high signal in the white matter of the frontal, parieto-occipital, and temporal lobes. Treatment with antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, and withdrawal of tacrolimus resulted in amelioration of symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. Six patients showed complete recovery, while the seventh had residual rigidity and cognitive impairment caused by hypoxia during a convulsion.

Steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) remains a challenging condition warranting surgery upon failure of pharmacological treatment. Calcineurin inhibitors or infliximab are alternatives in this situation. Data on the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in this setting are limited.