High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Sustained bromocriptine therapy in 50 previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease.


WE REPORT THE FIRST CASE OF NONARTERITIC ANTERIOR ISCHEMIC NEUROPATHY (NAION) ASSOCIATED WITH DOUBLE THROMBOPHILIA: protein S deficiency and prothrombin G20210A mutation. A 58-year-old man is presented including the clinical and laboratory findings, cardiovascular profile and thrombophilia screening. The patient presented with 3/10 vision and an inferior altitudinal defect in the right eye. Funduscopic examination of the right eye revealed a hyperemic optic disk with blurred superior optic disk border and sectoral nerve fiber layer edema. Complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were normal, suggesting a NAION. A workup of cardiovascular risk factors revealed hyperlipidemia, arterial hypertension and high-risk asymptomatic coronary artery disease. Due to the family history of deep vein thrombosis in the patient's daughter, a thrombophilia screening was additionally performed. The results revealed a double thrombophilic defect, namely congenital protein S deficiency and heterozygosity for prothrombin G20210A mutation, which were also identified in the patient's daughter. Anticoagulant warfarin therapy was initiated and the patient underwent a triple bypass surgery. At three-month follow-up, the right optic disk edema had resolved, leaving a pale superior optic nerve head. Visual acuity in the right eye had slightly improved to 4/10; however, the dense inferior altitudinal field defect had remained unchanged. The patient is currently treated with warfarin, atorvastatin, irbesartan and metoprolol. This case suggests that the first line of investigation in all patients with NAION involves assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. However, careful history taking will identify NAION patients who are eligible for additional thrombophilia screening: young patients without vasculopathic risk factors, bilateral or recurrent NAION, idiopathic or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), positive family history of VTE, and VTE in young age or in unusual sites (e.g. cerebral, hepatic, mesenteric, or renal vein).

Left ventricular hypertrophy or concentric remodeling, LA enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction were present in the majority of patients with HFPEF. Left ventricular mass and LA size were independently associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The presence of structural remodeling and diastolic dysfunction may be useful additions to diagnostic criteria and provide important prognostic insights in patients with HFPEF.

The expression of PKC-alpha in the membrane and cytosol fractions from the renal cortex was significantly higher in diabetic rats (276.83 +/- 32.44% in membrane, 149.04 +/- 23.42% in cytosol) than that in normal ones. The expression of PKC-betaII in the renal cortex of diabetic rats decreased significantly in the membrane (50.00 +/- 11.68%, p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the cytosol (94.51 +/- 11.69%, p > 0.05) compared with normal controls. Treatment with irbesartan, fosinopril and their combination partially corrected the abnormalities mentioned above. For the expression of PKC-alpha and -betaII in the medulla, no difference was detected among the 5 groups.

In the male, normotensive pithed rat model, we studied the effect of losartan (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg), irbesartan (3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg), telmisartan (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) and captopril (1.5, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg) on electrical stimulation of the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord. To investigate the interaction between postsynaptic AT1-receptors and alpha-adrenoceptors, the effects of these compounds on pressor responses to exogenous noradrenaline were studied.

Patients with diabetic nephropathy are at elevated cardiovascular risk. C-reactive protein (CRP) has been used to successfully predict cardiovascular events.

The interactive effect of smoking status and the KCNJ11 genotype may influence the antihypertensive effects of irbesartan, which indicates a consideration for future individualized antihypertensive drug treatment.

This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel group study. One hundred and sixteen patients from three centers were enrolled. After a placebo lead-in period of 14 days, 55 patients (24-75 years-of-age) who had a mean seated diastolic blood pressure of 95 to 110 mmHg were randomized to once-daily treatment with irbesartan 150 mg or enalapril 10 mg. Doses were doubled at week 4 if trough seated diastolic blood pressure was 90 mmHg or more. Trough blood pressure was measured at zero, two, four and eight weeks of treatment.

In this cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes with nephropathy, serum bicarbonate level associations with kidney disease end points were not retained after adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate, which is in contrast to results of earlier studies in nondiabetic populations.

We aimed to assess the effects of irbesartan and nebivolol on the left atrium (LA) volume and deformation in the patients with mild-moderate hypertension.

Activation of renal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is renoprotective, but there is no safe PPARα activator for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies have reported that irbesartan (Irbe), an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) widely prescribed for CKD, activates hepatic PPARα. However, Irbe's renal PPARα-activating effects and the role of PPARα signalling in the renoprotective effects of Irbe are unknown. Herein, these aspects were investigated in healthy kidneys of wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null (KO) mice and in the murine protein-overload nephropathy (PON) model respectively. The results were compared with those of losartan (Los), another ARB that does not activate PPARα. PPARα and its target gene expression were significantly increased only in the kidneys of Irbe-treated WT mice and not in KO or Los-treated mice, suggesting that the renal PPARα-activating effect was Irbe-specific. Irbe-treated-PON-WT mice exhibited decreased urine protein excretion, tubular injury, oxidative stress (OS), and pro-inflammatory and apoptosis-stimulating responses, and they exhibited maintenance of fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, the expression of PPARα and that of its target mRNAs encoding proteins involved in OS, pro-inflammatory responses, apoptosis and fatty acid metabolism was maintained upon Irbe treatment. These renoprotective effects of Irbe were reversed by the PPARα antagonist MK886 and were not detected in Irbe-treated-PON-KO mice. These results suggest that Irbe activates renal PPARα and that the resultant increased PPARα signalling mediates its renoprotective effects.