High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The protective effect of nitroglycerin on gastrointestinal and renal side effects of lornoxicam in rats.


Most clarithromycin-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori have a mutation from adenine (A) to guanine (G) at position 2142 or 2143 of the 23S rRNA gene. Our aim in this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay that could determine these mutations in a single reaction tube.

Longterm macrolide therapy (LTMT) has been employed as an effective therapy both for diffuse panbronchiolitis in Japan and for cystic fibrosis in European countries. However, effects on antibiotic susceptibility profiles of microorganisms, associated with such long-term administration of antibiotics, are of concern. We retrospectively identified 57 pneumococcal isolates, recovered from the same number of patients receiving either LTMT with 400 mg of clarithromycin daily (CAM group; n = 31) or 600 mg of erythromycin daily (EM group; n = 26) by reviewing the patients' records at Nara Medical University. On analysis, we found that all isolates recovered from the CAM group and 25 of the 26 recovered from the EM group were resistant to EM, showing either an MLSB: or an M phenotype. Interestingly, isolates exhibiting the M phenotype were much less frequent in the CAM group (2 of 31; 6.5%) than in the EM group (15 of 26; 57.7%). No increase in the rate of penicillin resistance was observed in either group. The macrolide resistance profiles of microorganisms may be influenced differently according to differences in the kind of macrolide antibiotics used.

A total of 1622 articles were identified, of which 19 studies were eligible. Overall, eradication was achieved in 82.5% of half-dose (n = 2115) vs. 83.4% of full-dose recipients (n = 2109) on ITT (87.1% vs. 88.4% on PP respectively). Pooled relative risk in the half- vs. full-dose regimen was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95-1.02) on ITT and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.01) on PP by the random effects model. Heterogeneity was significant (chi-squared statistic P = 0.05, I(2) = 37%). AE were reported in 29.3% of half- vs. 44.0% of full-dose recipients [pooled RR 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60-0.75)]. Pre-planned subgroup analyses of dose modification, sample size, study origin and treatment duration, as well as sensitivity analysis showed no significant differences between arms.

A high rate of resistance (49.5 to 72.7%) to amoxicillin (AMX) was observed in Helicobacter pylori after two or three unsuccessful eradication attempts. Unsuccessful eradication regimens significantly increase resistance to not only clarithromycin (CLR) and metronidazole (MNZ) but also AMX.

Agar dilution was used to test the activities of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin against 235 strains of Enterococcus faecalis. HMR 3647 was the most active compound (MICs at which 50 and 90% of the isolates are inhibited [MIC50 and MIC90, respectively] of 0.06 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively). The MIC50 and MIC90 (with the MIC50 given first and the MIC90 given second; both in micrograms per milliliter) for other compounds were as follows: 4.0 and >32.0 for erythromycin A, 16.0 and >32.0 for azithromycin, 2.0 and >32 for clarithromycin, 32.0 and >32.0 for roxithromycin, 32.0 and >32.0 for clindamycin, and 8.0 and 16.0 for quinupristin-dalfopristin. All compounds were only bacteriostatic.

3624 men and women, each of whom contributed one isolate.

We reported a case of a 40-year-old woman who presented with prolonged fever for 1 month, left sternoclavicular arthritis, anemia, multiple cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. She had a previous history of recurrent Salmonella group D septicemia. Computed tomography of her chest and abdomen revealed left sternoclavicular (SC) arthritis, left subscapular collections, hepatosplenomegaly, and multiple hypodensed lesions in the spleen. Blood, synovial fluid and bone marrow for mycobacterial cultures identified Mycobacterium avium by real-time PCR and reverse hybridization. Cell mediated immunodeficiency investigations were strongly positive for autoantibodies to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by ELISA technique. During the third week of antimycobacterial therapy, she developed an acute generalized pustular eruption. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis; drug allergy was suspected. The pustular eruption resolved with steroid treatment and discontinuation of levofloxacin and clarithromycin. She was discharged home after 8 weeks of hospitalization with azithromycin, rifampicin and ethambutol.

To perform a systematic review of the world literature to determine current success rates of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment.

Antibiotics combined with surgery may significantly increase treatment success for Mycobacterium ulcerans infections, and fluoroquinolone combined with rifampicin-containing antibiotic regimens can provide an effective and safe oral treatment option.

Acute maxillary sinusitis is a common condition requiring broad-spectrum therapy to prevent development of chronic disease. A randomised, double-blind, multicentre study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily (n = 185) and clarithromycin 250 mg twice daily (n = 185), both administered for 10 days, in the treatment of patients with acute sinusitis. Efficacy was determined by assessment of clinical response at post-treatment and follow-up, and by radiological assessment at pre-treatment and follow-up. Assessment of days absent from work due to illness was also made. In the cefuroxime axetil group, 169/185 (91%) patients were cured/improved at post-treatment, as were 172/185 (93%) patients receiving clarithromycin and, of these, 137/169 (81%) and 143/172 (83%) maintained their response at follow-up. Follow-up radiography showed a reduction in incidence of air fluid level and/or opacification from 96% to 15% (cefuroxime axetil) and from 96% to 11% (clarithromycin), and a decrease in frequency of mucosal thickening from 58% to 28% (cefuroxime axetil) and from 56% to 29% (clarithromycin). Only 10% of patients in either group experienced adverse events and days absent from work were comparable. This study demonstrated clinical equivalence between twice-daily cefuroxime axetil and clarithromycin, both treatments being effective and well tolerated.