High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

The role of the vagal pathway and gastric dopamine in the gastroparesis of rats after a 6-hydroxydopamine microinjection in the substantia nigra.


Women scheduled for surgical termination of first trimester pregnancy were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: isosorbide 5-mononitrate 40 mg 4 hours or 10 hours before the operation or no preoperative treatment. Cervical specimens were obtained for the analysis of tissue levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclo-oxygenase 1, cyclo-oxygenase 2, prostaglandin F(2 alpha), and prostaglandin E(2) or were fixed in glutaraldehyde for microscopy.

As compared with placebo, IS-5-MN caused significant blunting of the responses to both Ach (peak responses: placebo 127 +/- 31%; IS-5-MN 52 +/- 24%) and L-NMMA (peak responses: placebo 41 +/- 5%; IS-5-MN 22 +/- 8%). Vitamin C completely restored the forearm blood flow responses to Ach (peak responses: vitamin C 180 +/- 33%; saline 107 +/- 17%).

We conducted a randomized controlled hemodynamic study to evaluate the effect of placebo and 20 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate, a long-acting organic nitrate, in 19 patients with HBsAg-positive cirrhosis by the simultaneous measurement of portal venous pressure and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Baseline values for the two groups were similar. One hour after oral administration of 20 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate in 10 patients, mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure significantly decreased from 92 +/- 13 (mean +/- S.D.) to 82 +/- 14 mmHg, from 12.9 +/- 4.5 to 9.3 +/- 2.4 mmHg and from 6.9 +/- 3.4 to 4.3 +/- 1.8 mmHg, respectively. However, both portal venous pressure gradient (from 18.1 +/- 3.6 to 17.5 +/- 3.0 mmHg) and hepatic venous pressure gradient (from 17.8 +/- 5.2 to 16.6 +/- 5.3 mmHg) remained unchanged during the study. In six patients who received 20 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate twice daily for 7 days, hepatic venous pressure gradient remained unaltered as compared to basal and 1-hr values. There was no significant change in cardiac index, heart rate or systemic vascular resistance in either immediate (1-hr) or delayed (7-day) studies. Three patients (30%) developed mild headache or dizziness and two patients (20%) demonstrated systolic hypotension (less than mmHg) during the immediate study. This study shows that isosorbide-5-mononitrate appears to have no effect in treating portal hypertension in patients with HBsAg-positive cirrhosis. In addition, the isosorbide-5-mononitrate may affect the systemic circulation more than the portal circulation.

Twenty-four patients with severe stable angina pectoris were included in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to assess the efficacy of a controlled-release preparation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN-CR) 60 mg once daily or twice daily as adjunctive treatment to a beta blocker. In bicycle ergometer exercise tests performed 4 h after study drug intake, total exercise time and time until 1-mm ST-depression increased significantly during both regimens as compared with placebo (p less than 0.05). However, only the 60-mg once-daily regimen was significantly better than placebo with regard to time until angina pectoris. The results indicate that ISMN-CR 60 mg once daily is effective as adjunctive to beta-blocker treatment, and nitrate tolerance appeared to develop during the twice-daily regimen. In 10 of the patients, the effect of additional sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) was studied. Exercise time after NTG remained remarkably constant throughout all study periods. Exercise time was significantly prolonged after additional NTG and independent of the dose level of ISMN-CR. This indicates that cross-tolerance to NTG was not induced during sustained treatment with ISMN-CR.

In 22 patients with stable myocardial ischemia, we prospectively studied the short- and long-term effects of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) on dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia, the ability of dipyridamole-stress echocardiography to evaluate nitrate tolerance, and the role of activation of the neurohumoral system in nitrate tolerance development, assessed by modifications of catecholamines plasma levels and heart rate variability. After brief treatment with 5-ISMN, dipyridamole-stress echocardiography was negative in 19 of 22 patients (p < 0.001 vs. placebo). During the sustained phase, dipyridamole-stress echocardiography was positive after both placebo and active drug (p = NS vs. placebo). Heart rate variability showed significantly higher values in power of the low frequency (LF) band and low- to high-frequency ratio (L/H), as well as significantly lower values of the power of the high-frequency (HF) band (all p < 0.001) during brief but not during sustained administration of 5-ISMN. Norepinephrine plasma levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) during short-term 5-ISMN administration but not during the sustained phase. Our results indicate that short-term administration of 5-ISMN antagonizes dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia and show the loss of antiischemic efficacy in 95% of patients during sustained treatment, demonstrating that dipyridamole-stress echocardiography is a useful tool to assess the presence of nitrate tolerance. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability and norepinephrine values confirm that brief nitrate administration increases sympathetic activity, a possible crucial trigger event in the development of nitrate tolerance, whereas prolonged nitrate treatment is not associated with prolonged neurohumoral activation.