High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Therapeutic potential and critical analysis of trastuzumab and bevacizumab in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents against metastatic breast/colorectal cancer affecting various endpoints.


MEDLINE (1966-1997), EMBASE (1974-1997), Current Contents, and Science Citation Index searches were conducted to identify randomized controlled trials of the treatment of acute otitis media in children with antibiotics of different durations.

Inferences drawn from in vitro studies suggest that microballoons may be potential delivery system for cefpodoxime proxetil with improvement in bioavailability in comparison to conventional dosage forms.

We compared the effects of nifedipine and diltiazem on the uptake of cefpodoxime proxetil (CP). The study was aimed at establishing the impact of increased mesenteric blood flow due to calcium channel blockers on passive transport. Twelve volunteers were given CP (200 mg) orally in a crossover design. The absorption, disposition, and elimination parameters of cefpodoxime were compared among the following three treatment groups: CP alone, CP following oral administration of diltiazem (60 mg), or CP following oral administration of nifedipine (20 mg). No statistically significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters was observed between the three treatment groups.

The efficacy and safety of azithromycin in otitis media and streptococcal pharyngitis, the simple dosing regimen and a highly palatable oral suspension formulation should increase compliance among pediatric patients and thereby improve clinical outcomes.

The objective of the present work was to improve bioavailability of cepodoxime proxetil through gastroretentive microballoon formulation.

Cefpodoxime demonstrates good in vitro activity against pathogens frequently associated with respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and tissue infections. It has not demonstrated greater efficacy than the other antibiotics to which it has been compared. The available published clinical trials are fraught with methodologic, statistical, and evaluative flaws. Thus, further trials comparing cefpodoxime with established treatments, as well as the newer cephalosporins, are needed before its place in therapy can be established.

Two controlled United States trials compared the safety and efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil (100mg twice daily) with either cefaclor (250mg 3 times daily) or amoxicillin (250mg 3 times daily) in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Treatment duration was 7 days. 307 of 762 patients treated with cefpodoxime proxetil, 99 of 190 treated with cefaclor, and 57 of 185 treated with amoxicillin were evaluable for efficacy. 311, 99 and 59 pathogens were isolated from cefpodoxime proxetil, cefaclor and amoxicillin patients, respectively, the most common pathogens being Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Bacteriological cure rates were 80% (247/307), 82% (81/99) and 70% (40/57) for cefpodoxime proxetil, cefaclor and amoxicillin, respectively. Respective clinical cure rates were 79% (242/307), 79% (78/99) and 72% (41/57). Cefpodoxime proxetil was well tolerated, and there was no significant difference between the groups in the overall incidence of adverse experiences. Thus, cefpodoxime proxetil is efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections and compares favourably with cefaclor and amoxicillin.

The clinical success rates at day 12-19 in the per-protocol population (primary analysis) were 92.3% (215/233) in the cefpodoxime-proxetil group and 93.6% (204/218) in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group. The 95% confidence interval of [6.5%; 3.9%] demonstrated that cefpodoxime-proxetil was not inferior to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Cure rates at follow-up (day 25-30) were 90.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Results were similar in the intent-to-treat population. Compliance was significantly better in the cefpodoxime-proxetil group (99.2% versus 95.5%; p=0.011). Tolerance was also significantly better: 1.2% (3/247) of cefpodoxime-proxetil patients reported a treatment-related adverse event, compared with 10.7% (26/244) in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group (p<0.001). Most events were gastrointestinal and of mild to moderate intensity.

From 2007 to 2008, 30 pediatricians enrolled 3141 patients 3 to 36 months old with AOM. Standardized history and physical examination findings were recorded. Factors related to AOM failures were identified by multivariate logistic regression.

6 healthy adult horses and 6 healthy foals at 7 to 14 days of age and again at 3 to 4 months of age.

The study enrolled 851 patients. Comparable clinical cure rates were observed among evaluable patients in the 3 treatment groups at both the posttreatment and followup visits: at the posttreatment visit, cure rates were 90.5% (162/179) for cefditoren 200 mg, 89.7% (148/165) for cefditoren 400 mg, and 92.2% (153/166) for cefpodoxime 200 mg; at the follow-up visit, they were a respective 88.4% (160/181), 87.2% (143/164), and 90.4% (151/167). Of the 171 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated before treatment, 22 (12.9%) had reduced susceptibility to penicillin, 5 (2.9%) of them penicillin resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration > or = 2 microg/mL). At the posttreatment visit, the overall eradication rates of pathogens isolated from microbiologically evaluable patients were 88.7% (134/151), 89.9% (134/149), and 95.7% (134/140) in the respective treatment groups (P = 0.031, cefditoren 200 mg vs cefpodoxime). Eradication rates of S pneumoniae were 93.8% (45/48), 95.7% (45/47), and 95.6% (43/ 45) in the respective treatment groups; those of Haemophilus influenzae were 90.2% (46/51), 97.7% (43/44), and 97.4% (37/38). The rates of resolution and/or improvement in clinical signs and symptoms were comparable between groups. The study drugs were well tolerated, with 1.7%, 2.5%, and 1.4% of patients in the respective groups discontinuing study drug prematurely due to a treatment-related adverse event, the majority of these associated with the digestive system.