High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Tissue perfusion in relation to cardiac output during continuous positive-pressure ventilation and administration of propranolol or verapamil.


12.5% of patients developed hypertension after starting treatment with venlafaxine. There was an association between heart rate and the dose of venlafaxine although not statistically significant. There was no association between dose of venlafaxine and PR, QT, QRSD and QTc intervals. One patient on 300 mg who was hypertensive and on other medications that may prolong QTc, had mildly prolonged QTc. However this was not clinically significant.

Remission of treatment-resistant late-life depression (defined as a Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score of ≤10 at both of the last 2 consecutive visits).

The changes in behaviour and plasma metabolic profiles were investigated after four-week CUMS exposure and treatment. Drugs were administered during the four-week period of CUMS, with the healthy group serving as negative controls, and the fluoxetine and venlafaxine groups serving as positive controls. Plasma samples were collected at 28th day, and the plasma metabolic profiling was measured using NMR, followed by multivariate analysis.

Chronic pain is among the most common conditions to initiate medical care; 40% of patients victimized by chronic pain are not under the supervision of a physician, and about 70% of patients with severe pain are receiving pain medical care. About dollar 100 billion is an annual estimated cost representing loss of productivity, increased medical costs, and income loss. Major depressive disorder is not infrequently encountered in daily clinical practice often presenting with somatic complaints that include varieties of pain, and these may be so prominent as to direct the treatment to the somatic complaint evaluation to the exclusion of underlying psychopathology. Anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disorders may also present with such a somatization evaluation focus. Serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), ie, venlafaxine and duloxetine, offer benefits over tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Years of experience with venlafaxine representing a first-line pharmacotherapy for depression and anxiety have benefited patients presenting with somatic symptoms with a robust onset. A more rapid achievement by venlafaxine of remission and a high-quality pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile lead to patient compliance and facilitate both fewer relapses and recurrences. Duloxetine is broadly discussed, revealing pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, adverse/side effects, cautions with requisite patient-specific selection, and laboratory monitoring. The management of somatic pain complaints of physical and psychiatric origin is discussed.

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative disease which leads to a dementing syndrome that involves an irreversible impairment of higher visual and spatial functions. Memory and language functions generally tend to be preserved better than in other types of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. Here we report a case of PCA, which initially was diagnosed and treated for about a year as a major depressive episode. While most patients initially present with neurologic symptoms, in some PCA cases secondary manifestations, such as e. g. affective symptoms, might appear before the onset of overt cognitive dysfunction. In some cases, this might lead to a diagnostic delay of this neurodegenerative disease.

These preliminary results suggest that two antidepressants that appear to have dissimilar mechanisms of action may nevertheless have similar effects on the positive and negative affective components of depression. Alternatively, paroxetine may have a clinically relevant noradrenergic effect at the dose tested.

Sixty-five percent of participants were homozygous of the wild type (WT) allele, whereas 35% carried one or more variant alleles associated with intermediate and poor 2D6 metabolizer status. VEN concentration per unit dose was significantly higher and ODV concentration per unit dose was significantly lower in participants who carried one or more variant alleles compared to participants who were homozygous for the WT allele. The VEN and ODV concentrations per unit dose were also correlated with creatinine clearance. CYP2D6 genotype was not associated with medication associated side-effects.

To describe a patient with hyponatremia associated with venlafaxine therapy.

Augmentation of SSRI/SNRI with zolpidem improves sleep and quality of life in breast cancer survivors with hot flashes and associated sleep disturbance. Adding a hypnotic agent to an SSRI/SNRI helps women to sleep through nighttime hot flashes. Treatments targeting sleep may be an important supplemental strategy to optimize well-being.

Forty-three patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV are included in the study. Forty-three patients were randomized to take fluoxetine (22 cases) or venlafaxine (21 cases). Serum levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA at baseline and 6 weeks after the start of treatment.

(1) When an antidepressant is considered a necessary addition to psychological support in treating patients with depression, the first-line drug is a tricyclic such as clomipramine or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) such as paroxetine; (2) Agomelatine, a melatonin receptor agonist, is approved in the European Union for the treatment of depression; (3) Available evaluation does not include any clinical trials designed to compare the efficacy of agomelatine with that of a tricyclic or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Most data come from 7 placebo-controlled trials; (4) Agomelatine (25 mg/day) was statistically more effective (on a rating scale) than placebo in only 3 of these 7 trials. The clinical relevance of the score improvements is questionable. No data are available on the cure rate or on suicide prevention; (5) In one trial, increasing the daily dose from 25 mg to 50 mg provided no supplementary benefit; (6) A trial in 367 patients failed to show that agomelatine was any more effective than placebo in preventing new depressive episodes (29% after one year). In another trial including 339 patients, the relapse rate was statistically lower after 6 months on agomelatine (20.6%) than on placebo (41.4%); (7) Very high doeses of agomelatine are oncogenic in animals. The risk in humans is not known. Dizziness, gastrointestinal and cutaneous disorders have been observed. Agomelatine is probably hepatotoxic; (8) In summary, agomelatine has unproven efficacy and poorly documented adverse effects. It is better to continue to use older antidepressants such as tricyclics or serotonin reuptake inhibitors.