High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Validation of USP apparatus 4 method for microsphere in vitro release testing using Risperdal Consta.


In vivo studies of serotonin function have been limited by the lack of safe and selective pharmacologic agents and availability of suitable radiotracers. In the present study, the authors evaluated the cerebral metabolic effects of acute and continued administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in patients with geriatric depression as a potential marker of serotonin dysfunction.

Premenstrual syndrome is defined as recurrent moderate psychological and physical symptoms that occur during the luteal phase of menses and resolve with menstruation. It affects 20 to 32 percent of premenopausal women. Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder experience affective or somatic symptoms that cause severe dysfunction in social or occupational realms. The disorder affects 3 to 8 percent of premenopausal women. Proposed etiologies include increased sensitivity to normal cycling levels of estrogen and progesterone, increased aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and neurotransmitter abnormalities, particularly serotonin. The Daily Record of Severity of Problems is one tool with which women may self-report the presence and severity of premenstrual symptoms that correlate with the criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision. Symptom relief is the goal for treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. There is limited evidence to support the use of calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B6 supplementation, and insufficient evidence to support cognitive behavior therapy. Serotonergic antidepressants (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) are first-line pharmacologic therapy.

Although there are reports on their use for the treatment of enuresis, we present three pediatric cases with serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced enuresis. Because SSRIs continue to be commonly prescribed in the pediatric population, the need to monitor for the possibility of enuresis precipitated by SSRIs is increasingly important.

A simple, fast, selective and very sensitive capillary GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of five antidepressant drugs is described. Fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram, sertraline and paroxetine belong to the newest and most important drug group termed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Imipramine was used in this method as an internal standard for quantification. Optimum parameters for GC separation were investigated, i.e., flow rate, column head pressure, injector temperature, injection splitless conditions and oven temperature program. MS detection was performed in SIM mode to increase the sensitivity. Stability of the solutions, linear concentration range, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ (3.6-41.5 mg/L) and specificity were examined in the presence of excipients for checking the reliability of this method. The robustness was evaluated with a matrix of 15 experiments (seven factors and three levels) using Plackett-Burman fractional factorial experimental design, and Youden and Steiner statistical treatment. The method was applied to the analysis of these antidepressants in nearly all their pharmaceutical formulations, obtaining recoveries between 98.1% and 102.7% with regard to the claimed values.

Subjects were all participants in carefully designed and executed clinical trials and may not necessarily reflect patients in clinical settings who may have complex psychiatric and non-psychiatric comorbidities. The measured outcomes come from different studies and thus comparisons are indirect.

We recruited 119 adolescents and adults with IGD. We treated these participants for 6 weeks in three groups as follows: 44 participants were treated with bupropion SR (bupropion group), 42 participants were treated with escitalopram (escitalopram group), and 33 patients without any medication were observed in the community (observation group). At baseline and at the 6-week follow-up visit, all subjects were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, the Young Internet Addiction Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the ADHD Rating Scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales.

In our effort to delineate novel pharmacophoric configuration of bioisosteric pyran versions of cis-(6-benzhydryl-piperidin-3-yl)-benzylamine derivatives in interacting with the monoamine transporter, further structure-activity relationship study was carried out. Both cis and trans 2,4- and 3,6-disubstituted derivatives were synthesized to determine the positional importance of N-substitution on affinity for monoamine transporters, that is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in rat brain. For that purpose, the potency of compounds was determined in competing for the binding of [(3)H]WIN 35,428, [(3)H]citalopram, and [(3)H]nisoxetine, respectively. Selected compounds were also evaluated for their activity in inhibiting the uptake of [(3)H]DA by DAT. Our binding results demonstrated potency in 3,6-disubstituted derivatives while 2,4-disubstituted derivatives failed to exhibit any appreciable binding affinity. Further structural exploration of the exocyclic N-atom in 3,6-disubstituted derivatives produced compounds potent at both DAT and NET. Compounds 16h and 16o with hydroxyl and amino groups in the phenyl moiety of the benzyl group produced the highest activity for the NET. In this regard, compound 16e with a methoxy substituent produced weak affinity at NET, which upon conversion into a hydroxyl functionality as in 16h produced potent affinity for the NET. Various indole derivatives displayed different interactions; the 5-substituted indole derivative 16n exerted potent affinity for NET, confirming the bioisosteric equivalence between this indole moiety and the phenyl-4-hydroxy group in 16h.