High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

Valproate in bipolar disorder: 2000 onwards.


Oxy-IR, Oxy-XL and Tol-ER appear to be cost-effective options for the management of urge incontinence from the NHS perspective. A decision among the treatments depends on the acceptable cost per additional incontinent-free week.

Neither detrusor overactivity nor increased pelvic floor activity during voiding correlated with treatment outcome. Standard treatment could be the first choice in urge syndrome as well as in dysfunctional voiding, reserving urodynamic studies for patients in whom this first approach fails.

Most patients were prescribed 5-10 mg/day oxybutynin ER as both starting and maintenance doses, with a dose escalation rate of only 14.9%. Prescription of > 10 mg/day oxybutynin ER was not frequent in real life practice.

We performed a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in 25 patients with spinal cord injury who had erectile dysfunction and micturition disorders. A baseline urodynamic test was performed as well as a second urodynamic test 1 to 3 hours after the administration of 20 mg vardenafil and placebo in 15 and 10 cases, respectively. In all patients standard oral oxybutynin administration was not discontinued. Statistical assessment included the 3 urodynamic parameters maximum detrusor pressure during voiding, maximum cystometric capacity and detrusor overactivity volume.

Trospium chloride and oxybutynin, judged in terms of objective urodynamic parameters, are of substantially equal value as parasympathetic antagonists. However, assessment of tolerance in terms of adverse drug effects showed that TCl had certain advantages.

To evaluate the response rate of various modalities of therapy in primary nocturnal enuretic children according to the ultrasound bladder volume and wall thickness index (BVWI) measurements.

Mean voids per day decreased from 11.3 to 9.1 (-18.8%) with behavioral treatment and 11.5 to 9.5 (-16.9%) with drug therapy. Equivalence analysis indicated that posttreatment means were equivalent (P < .01). After treatment, 85% of participants rated themselves as much better or better; more than 90% were completely or somewhat satisfied, with no between-group differences. The behavioral group showed greater reductions in nocturia (mean = -0.70 vs -0.32 episodes/night; P = .05). The drug group showed greater reductions in maximum urgency scores (mean = -0.44 vs -0.12; P = .02). Other between-group differences were nonsignificant.

The new flavone derivative REC 15/2053, a compound with spasmolytic activity on the lower urinary tract, was examined for its in vitro interaction with alpha- and beta-noradrenergic receptors, dopaminergic, muscarinic, serotoninergic, and opiate receptors, and calcium-channel binding sites labeled with 1,4-dihydropyridines from normal rat brain. All the investigated receptors are directly or indirectly involved in the nervous control of the lower urinary tract functions. The activity of REC 15/2053 on these receptors was studied in comparison to the most common drugs used in the management of urinary bladder disorders such as flavoxate, emepronium bromide, oxybutynin, terodiline, and imipramine. REC 15/2053 showed only weak binding to [3H]nitrendipine sites (IC50 = 14 microM) and muscarinic receptors (IC50 = 18 microM), whereas flavoxate was slightly active only at muscarinic receptors (IC50 = 12.2 microM). Emepronium bromide, oxybutynin, and terodiline were active only at muscarinic receptors, with IC50 values of 236, 5.4, and 588 nM, respectively. Oxybutynin showed a weak affinity to [3H]nitrendipine binding sites (IC50 = 44.4 microM). Imipramine was active at alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors (IC50 = 248 and 653 nM, respectively). The activity of REC 15/2053 at muscarinic receptors and 1,4-dihydropyridine binding sites seems too low to account for its mechanism of action.

The current study was conducted to evaluate, by the noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET), the binding of antimuscarinic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) to muscarinic receptors in rat brain.

We identified 8694 men with a median age of 66.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 59.0-74.0) years. Most (7850; 90.3%) received an α₁-blocker, and 2167 (24.9%) received antimuscarinic therapy over a median of 2.1 years. The most commonly prescribed α₁-blocker was tamsulosin (81.8%); most frequent antimuscarinics were tolterodine (41.0%), oxybutynin (37.2%) and solifenacin (35.7%). Concomitant prescription of α1-blocker and antimuscarinic therapy (within 30 days of each other) was received by 1160 men (14.8% of α₁-blocker-treated men). Of α₁-blocker recipients, 3024 (38.5%) discontinued during follow-up, while 1149 (53.0%) discontinued antimuscarinic therapy. Of 2167 men who received an antimuscarinic, 476 (22.0%) switched to another antimuscarinic. Of the three most commonly prescribed antimuscarinics, solifenacin had the lowest proportions of discontinuations (43.0%) and switches (15.3%), and the longest median duration of therapy (90 days, IQR 30-300). General practice consultations accounted for most resource use (5307.9 per 1000 patient-years).