High blood pressure. Causes, symptoms, treatments

[Ventilation in prone decubitus in a patient with respiratory distress during heart surgery].


The main outcome measure was clinical cure. Secondary study outcomes of interest were microbiological cure and vaginal E coli colonization at the 2-week follow-up visit.

In the United States, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in females, in regions with resistance rates of <10-20%. Unfortunately, current data on regional resistance is often not readily available to physicians and regional variability in resistance remains largely unknown. This report presents antimicrobial susceptibility data for TMP-SMX and three other commonly tested antimicrobials organized by state and region to demonstrate current regional variability in resistance in the US. In the last quarter of 1999, 5739 fresh clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were collected from 202 laboratories throughout the US. Susceptibility testing was performed against TMP-SMX, cephalothin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin using broth microdilution. Data were analyzed by patient age and specimen source, and by state and region. In the US as a whole, resistance to TMP-SMX was 16.8% for E. coli, 7.8% for K. pneumoniae, 12.1% for P. mirabilis and 3.0% for S. saprophyticus, but these rates showed considerable regional variation. By state, E. coli resistance ranged from 7.4% in Pennsylvania to 33.3% in Iowa (among states with > or =50 isolates tested). Regionally, resistance for all uropathogens taken together ranged from 8.5% in East South-Central to 22.8% in West South-Central. Ciprofloxacin demonstrated the broadest activity of the antimicrobials tested and was more active than TMP-SMX against all pathogens. Resistance to TMP-SMX among E. coli now approaches or exceeds 20% in some areas. As resistance among uropathogens reaches clinically significant levels in many areas, continued regional surveillance is essential to ensure the provision of effective empiric therapy for urinary tract infections.

Substandard and falsified anti-malarial medicines pose a serious threat to public health, especially in low-income countries. Appropriate technologies for drug quality analysis in resource-limited settings are important for the surveillance of the formal and informal drug market. The feasibility of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with different solvent systems was tested using the GPHF Minilab in a study of the quality of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine tablets in Malawi.

Of 67 infants enrolled in a prospective study of infant pneumonia ten (14%) had evidence of Pneumocystis carinii infection. Diagnosis was achieved by demonstrating circulating P carinii antigens by counterimmunoelectrophoresis in all ten cases and by histopathology in the only infant who underwent an open lung biopsy. Antigenemia did not occur in 64 control infants (P = .003), nor in 57 patients of similar age who were hospitalized with pneumonitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis, respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and influenza A and influenza B viruses. None of the ten infants with P carinii pneumonitis had evidence of a primary immunodeficiency nor had any received immunosuppressive medication. These patients were hospitalized at a mean age of 6 weeks (range 2 to 12) and their illness was characterized by its afebrile course, presentation in crisis with severe respiratory distress, apnea, tachypnea, cough, increased IgM, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates with hyperaeration. The clinical features of P carinii pneumonitis were indistinguishable from those of C trachomatis and cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated wtih rapid disappearance of circulating antigens; however, the small number of patients studied did not permit an analysis of its clinical efficacy. These results indicate that P carinii singly or in combination with other infectious agents may be an important cause of pneumonitis in young, immunocompetent infants with no underlying illnesses.

We conducted a prospective study of women aged 18-40 years with acute uncomplicated cystitis symptoms for ≤7 days who subsequently grew an Enterobacteriaceae sp. and initially received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and phenazopyridine. We conducted telephone follow-up evaluating clinical cure at 1-3 days and in-person follow-up evaluating clinical, bacteriologic, and HRQoL outcomes at 3-7 days and 4-6 weeks post-treatment.

The available evidence fails to identify any one superior regimen for the treatment of TE. The choice of therapy will often be directed by available therapy. Given the current evidence, TMP-SMX appears to be an effective alternative therapy for TE in resource-poor settings where P+S are not available.

St. Elisabeth Hospital, Willemstad, Curaçao, Dutch Antilles.

Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii are the commonest protozoans causing infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). P. carinii is almost exclusively a pulmonary pathogen and caused the commonest serious infection experienced by AIDS patients. The clinical findings are those of progressive pneumonia. Diagnosis requires microscopic examination of lower respiratory secretions or lung tissue. Pentamidine or combinations of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are equally effective (85% recovery), but about one-half of patients thus treated experience severe toxicity. T. gondii infections occur primarily in the brain; patients present with focal seizures or neurologic deficit and have focal abnormalities as assessed by computed tomography. Serologic tests for toxoplasmosis are rarely diagnostic in AIDS patients, and most patients are treated empirically with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfonamide. Less invasive diagnostic tests and better chemotherapeutic agents are required for both pneumocystosis and toxoplasmosis.